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Sample Research Proposal on An Evaluation: The Effectiveness of Advertising Methods to the Marketing Procedures of Highway Industries in the UK

An Evaluation: The Effectiveness of Advertising Methods to the Marketing Procedures of Highway Industries in the UK


1.0 Introduction

Globalization has been the greatest issue that clearly affects the countries across the globe. Tailing the movement of the globalization is the issue of modernization which emphasizes the idea of competitiveness (Amponsah, 2001). Particularly, this category falls in the organizations’ marketing procedures. The arena for the international competition is already set and prepared for the clash of innovativeness of the various international competitors. Furthermore, the global expansion of the various organizations is another sought strategic action which enables that organization to create a huge market. Therefore, the marketing methods are recognized to create a great impact. 

1.1 Background of the Study

Advertising became the most effective way in passing the information to one individual and another. And through the developments that happened for over the years, the advertising campaigns became broad and effective through its collaboration with the technologies (Berthon, et al., 1999). The past and efficient communication turns the traditional way of advertising to a modernized and yet most effective way. Advertising had grown its popularity and this is not only found in businesses, but also in public or governmental institutions. For the business and other types of enterprises, the advertising is their strategic answer in different economic events or to promote their products and services in the market. For the successful businesses, advertising is their most effective way to introduce their product and, for other interpretations, to challenge their competitors. Therefore, the competency of a business is not entirely based on the product but also in the approach of the business in advertising. No wonder, why most of the successful businesses invest largely in the advertising. However, there is also a growing concern coming from the government to use the principle of advertising as another independent strategy to communicate.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Based on the background of the study, there are two interrelated questions that need to be clarified:

·         What is the role of the marketing techniques usually applied in Highway Industries?

·         To what extent do these marketing procedures ensure effectiveness?

1.3 Research Aim and Objectives

The purpose of the study is to investigate the effectiveness of the advertising methods used in the marketing procedures that are implemented in Highway Industries. In order to facilitate the investigation, there are four core objectives presented. First is to determine the philosophies or theories applied by the organization in implementing the marketing procedures. Second is to demonstrate the history of the marketing procedures implemented in the organization such as the advantages and disadvantages. Third is to recognize the perception of the advertisers regarding the procedure. And fourth is to assess the effectiveness of the marketing procedures through describing the various challenges.

1.4 Significance of the Study

The significance of the study is to evaluate the process in marketing procedures that can deliver the competitive advantage in the market. Through discovering the essence of advertising methods and the role they play in an organization, the study can contribute in formulating the strategic advertising methods or models. 

2.0 Literature Review

2.1 Advertising

In a highly competitive marketplace that delivers products and services, the advertising plays along within and beyond the competition. Advertising will color the competition by interpreting the consumer’s needs and wants and bringing out the message throughout the other parts of the country and then, leave an influence. Advertising and promotion is a market strategy that is available for all, in whatever type of industry or product they belong (Carter, 1988).

The basic promotional message of an advertisement is composed of one, sometimes two, or all of the factors of informing, entertaining, educating, persuading, and reminding. Meanwhile, the promotional objectives will dictate the nature and form of the promotional message’s type of appeal.  The promotional objectives can be determined by variety of factors such as the competitive situation, the position of the brand or service, life cycle stage of the service offered, and the organizational and marketing objectives. An advertisement completed its ingredients by creating an appeal to the public eye that is essential in presenting the promotional message. And a mixture of or more appeal is not restricted (Cateora, & Graham, 2002).

Rational Appeal - This kind of appeal presents information and facts about the certain products they endorsed. The message is sometimes logically that explains and compares against the competing brand, so that the decision of the buyer will rely upon the detailed information.

Emotional Appeal - Advertisers based their advertisement through the emotions or feelings of the audience. It is said that this kind of appeal enhances the message. One example is the British Airways’ efforts to differentiate itself on service and friendliness and a promotional campaign bringing the British Airways as “the world’s favorites’ airline”.

Fear Appeal - This is not entirely about threatening but yet tends to work best when the presentation is based on the current issue. An example is about an automobile that ensures the safety of every driver, because of their advanced technology that can save their lives when they are in great peril.

Humor Appeal - We always love to laugh and humorous messages are used successfully in many advertising campaigns. This kind of appeal attracts the audience’s interest, attention, and even imagination. This mood-enhancing tactic effectively convinces the consumers to buy their product in many various ways as possible and sometimes casting the fear of the potential consumers.

2.2 The Marketing Procedures

The marketing procedure such as advertising as a basic definition is a paid publicity that was transmitted in different kind of media such as television, radio, internet, magazines, newspaper, or posters and billboards. It is expensive but promises additional profit because of its effective control over the audience (Maddox, 1993). Although advertising is a non-personal communication, it can still reach the different parts of the world through the use of the technology. That is why, advertising also plays in between the wars of the giant businesses or industries, and they can promote all the good about the product or services the business can offer. 

2.3 The Persuasion Knowledge Model and Consumer Behavior Model

Persuasion knowledge model (PKM) in advertising is the structure within the individual’s personal experience and gained information throughout his life span. This is the target of the advertising to be fulfilled. The PKM processes the factors that can affect the formulation of the presentation which are based through the consumer behavior and social influences (Cateora & Graham, 2002).  Meanwhile, the consumer behavior is one of the popular method in determining the tastes and preferences of the consumers that can be projected to the presentation. As an advertisement based on the consumer’s behavior, the tendency to attract the customers is strong. Which is in the other way of distorting the facts about the product, like introducing a soft drink that is no sugar but in truth, a little sugar is added because of the gross taste.

2.4 Assessing the Advertising

Advertisements are very powerful that sometimes controls the decisions of the audience about their buying preferences. Through advertisements, the firms can gain additional income and the consumers can realize the fulfillment of one of their agenda. That is the power of advertising, they creates stories or short skit about the things that an individual needs although he can live without it. But no matter how powerful they are, advertising has limitations and one of these is that they can’t extend the campaign overseas. It is because of the cultural differences that limit the recognition of the brand and its values that they deliver (Dahl, 2004). And in contrast, when there is too much competition the businesses applies all their marketing strategies in its standard and advertising capability to increase efficiency (Mooij, 2003).

2.5 Information Distortion

In advertising, the distortion of truths is not new to the public but it still effective in terms of selling the products. Distortion of the truth is a strategy for the companies to develop better effectiveness or less costly products. And if the short run gain from a distortion of the truth were large, then the temptation to lie would be strong that can result into danger for the consumers (Tuerck, 1978). But there is a legal action imposed by the government to avoid the fabricated truth behind every product promotions and advertisements. All of the ideas about the products are mixed with the different appeals to persuade or convince the audience that the product is important or part of the basic needs even though it is truly not. An added factor of this is the use of influential people like celebrities that leaving promises to the consumers (Macarov, 2003). 

3.0 Methodology

3.1 Research Methods to be used   

Since the study is concern regarding the empirical ground and current situations of marketing procedures in Highway Industries, the proposed method would be the qualitative research analysis and falls under the process of surveys and interview. There are many types of primary research available based on the purpose of the researcher/s. The design of the method can create the accurate result and overview on the concern of the study. It is expected that survey methods are more efficient in terms of gathering the primary data therefore; it is utilized in the study. Through the form of questioning the people or groups, the study can gain the limited amount of information which is also useful in understanding the subject’s point-of-views. On the other hand, the use of interview will help the research in providing the ideas of a small group similar to gathering their opinions.  After the essential data had been collected, the information will be analyzed and organized according to a comprehensive fashion.

3.2 Subjects

The survey data will be taken in the participation of 200 marketers engaged in marketing procedure in the industry. The responses of the participants are gathered and then, analyzed based on the five-point Likert scale. On the second phase of the method, an interview will be conducted in among the five respondents in order to achieve the qualitative dimension alongside the gathered statistic data. The respondents of the interview will include the officials or the managers of the organization.

3.3 Instrument

The instruments provided in the method are the use of the questionnaires and interview materials which are presented at the end of the study. The questionnaires will use the five-point Likert Scale in which the researcher/s can determine the impact of issues presented before the participants. In order to the measure answer of the participants, degree of questions is answerable by the perception or attitude of an individual. For an instance, the following are considered:

[5] means

“very important”;

[4] means


[3] means

“moderately important”;

[2] means

“little or least important”;

[1] means



Each corresponding rates are valuable to determine the participant’s idea. On the other hand, the structure of the interview will be more like an open-ended question in order to widen the scope of the discussion. In this way, the participants can use their own ideas and freedom to express their perceptions in the center of the topic.

3.4 Statistical Treatment

The applied statistical approach in the study is through the factor analysis. The number and types of dimensions identified in the study are bound to be discussed in some details. There is a need for theoretical basis or background in the result to pose the result well. There is also a need for factoring the result on to two aspects (a) correlation of the results and (b) consider the to be uncover the marketing structures in the organization.

3.5 Reliability and Validity of the Study

The demographic profile of the participants will be also emphasized and making this will increase the validity of the gathered data. To measure the reliability of the method, the participant’s profile will also be assessed such as their age, gender, and educational attainment.  

3.6 Limitations

The response rate for the study was comparable to those obtained during item-tryout and standardization phases of other rating scales. There is an incident that the response rate might be low which might affect the shortcoming of the study. On the other hand, the interview is difficult to conduct in contacting the participants for most of them are busy individuals.  As a solution, it is better to propose for a suitable time applicable on the participants’ schedules.


Amponsah, W. (2001) Globalization and Poverty: Lessons from the Theory and Practice of Food Security, American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 1: 1.

Berthon, P., Pitt, L., Katsikeas, C. & Berthon, J.P. (1999) Executive Insights: Virtual Services Go International: International Services in the Marketspace, Journal of International Marketing, 7(3): 84-105.

Carter, S. (1988) Multinational and International Marketing in Constraint Economies, The Quarterly Review of Marketing, (Summer), 13-18.

Cateora, P. R. & Graham, J. (2002) International Marketing, 11th Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Dahl, S. (2004) Intercultural Research: The Current State of Knowledge [Online] Available at:’s-cultural-dimensions/ [Accessed 14 December 2010}

Macarov, D. (2003) What the Market Does to People: Privatisation, Globalization, and Poverty, Clarity Press, Atlanta.

Maddox, R. (1993) Cross-Cultural Problems in International Business: The Role of the Cultural Integration Function, Quorum Books, Westport, CT.

Mooij, M., (2003) Convergence and Divergence in Consumer Behavior: Implications for Global Advertising, International Journal of Advertising, 22: 183-202 [Online] Available at: [Accessed 14 December 2010]

Tuerck, D., (1978) Issues in Advertising: The Economics of Persuasion, American Enterprise Institute, Washington, D.C., p. 83

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