Research Proposal - Ethics and Corporate Governance in Public Organizations with Special Reference to Pakistan
The drafted title for this proposed paper is Issues of Ethics and Corporate Governance in Public Organizations in Pakistan. This paper will show the different approaches, methodologies and instruments to be used in order to make the future research study successful.
2.0 Background of the Study
The current situation of increased accountability in public sector, many organizations has brought to public attention the importance of ethical dimension of corporate governance (Fleming and McNamee, 2005). The fall and malpractice of corporate governance, which include the scandals of Enron and WorldCom and the dramatic decline of stock market during the start of the new century have caused an age-old debate regarding the basic issues of corporate governance: for what purpose the corporation exists and whose interests it serves (Letza, et al., 2008).
In Pakistan, the issue of corporate governance is very important just like the rest of countries in the world. With this, the country is implementing different regulatory framework, regulators, which include: Securities and Exchange Commission of Pakistan, State Bank of Pakistan and The Institute of Chartered Accountants of Pakistan.
3.0 Aim and Objectives
The main aim of the study is to explore and analyze the different issues related to ethics and corporate governance in public organizations in Pakistan. In line with this the following are the specific objectives of the study:
· To present the importance of ethics and corporate governance in public organizations;
· To analyze the different factors and aspects related to ethics and corporate governance;
· To assess the current condition or situation of ethics and corporate governance in public organizations in Pakistan; and
The research study to be used in the proposed study will be descriptive method. According to Creswell (1994) it intends to present facts about the nature and status of a situation as it exists at the time of the study. In addition, it also concerns with the relationships and practices that exist, beliefs and processes that are ongoing, effects that are being felt or trends that are developing (Best 1970). Therefore, it can be helpful in order to describe the current conditions and situations based on the impressions and perceptions of the respondents of the study (Creswell 1994). Both qualitative and quantitative data will be gathered for this study. This is to ensure that both non-statistical and statistical data will be used in order to support the findings and result of the study.
4.1 Data Collection
Surveys will be implemented in the study. Surveys are the most common form of research method for collection of primary data (Commonwealth of Learning, 2000). One of its purpose is to describe, e.g., to count the frequency of some event or to assess the distribution of some variables such as proportion of the population of different age groups, sex, religion, castes and languages, knowledge, attitude and adoption of practices about particular issues, and other information of similar nature about the population (Commonwealth of Learning, 2000).
Survey interview and questionnaire will be used in this study, which will be used in order to gather primary data. On the other hand, secondary data will be gathered from different online libraries and databases which include BMJ, EMERALD, SCIENCE DIRECT, EBSCO, QUESTA and GOOGLE BOOK.
4.2 Sample Frame
The target sample are two groups. The first groups are the employees and staffs of different public agencies and organizations in Pakistan, while the second group will be composed of the employees and staffs of different government agencies, which are considered as regulators of corporate governance in the country.
4.3 Data Analysis
The data results of the study will be analyzed by determining their corresponding frequency, percentage and weighted mean. The following statistical formulas will be used:
1. Percentage – to determine the magnitude of the responses to the questionnaire.
% = -------- x 100 ; n – number of responses
N N – total number of respondents
2. Weighted Mean
f1x1 + f2x2 + f3x3 + f4x4 + f5x5
x = ---------------------------------------------;
where: f – weight given to each response
x – number of responses
xt – total number of responses
Best, J. W. (1970). Research in Education, 2nd Ed. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, Inc.
Commonwealth of Learning. (2000). Manual for Educational Media Researchers: Knowing your Audience. Vancouver, Canada: Commonwealth Educational Media Centre for Asia (CEMCA).
Creswell, J.W. (1994). Research design. Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.
Fleming, S. and McNamee, M. (2005). ‘The ethics of corporate governance in public sector organizations’. Public Management Review. 7(1), 135 – 144.
Letza, S., Kirkbride, J., Sun, X. and Smallman, C. (2008). ‘Corporate governance theorizing: Limits, critics and alternatives’. International Journal of Law and Management. 50(1), 17 – 32.