Google's way of Marketing Communications
Google's way of Marketing Communications
The dawn of 21st century bombarded the whole world with various manifestations of the internationalization and amalgamation of the traditional and the contemporary means of living. The global community emerges as an intertwined exclusive community that works out into one whole governing system. For the past decades, development is apparent. And the active movement of such changes in areas of living affected every segment of the previously simple ways we have. The challenges brought about by these dynamic changes and challenges in the global marketplace affect business organizations in every immediate ways possible. With these, corporate management develops various mechanisms to do away with the adverse effects particularly to the business operations and overall performance. In terms of communication, businesses are finding their own ways and means of taking the most appropriate communication strategy and management specifically in their marketing of products and services. An effective marketing communications management in all aspects of the organization is the most relevant solution to such changes and challenges. It is a fact that every global company aims for the sustainable competitive advantage and ultimate leadership in every part of their chosen area of industry.
Basically, the diffusion of the internet has transformed the businesses around the globe. The utilization of the Internet is altering technologically advanced promotion practices suddenly while diverse businesses have been considering it to exercise as ingredient of their promotion approach. And this is what Google considered as advantage—the proliferation of the internet age. Actually, the internet does not only altered the technique diverse businesses do commerce and the means the patrons purchase goods and services but it also turn out to be involved in altering the value chain from producers to merchants to patrons, generating a innovative retail circulation channel. Website progress is an influential instrument used by diverse industries worldwide. It is considered as the course of attaining dealing aims exploiting electronic communications equipments (Bonn et al, 1998, p. 305-310). But no one can’t deny, through the help of search engines in the Internet world businesses are also growing significantly. And since search engines was mastered by Google, the company are now creating significant changes in the current business era.
Aside from this, the World Wide Web has carried a lot of transformations to the world, mostly on how modern companies are being controlled. Because of the technological advancement, product growth became quicker and improved and business procedures are more organized. Certainly, the proliferation of the internet to numerous businesses has tiled the means for better development in the future. In the business industry, the use of the internet has been an important marketing aspect, specifically in marketing communications (Borenstein & Saloner, 2001, pp. 3-12).
From this, the main objective of this paper is to assessed the role played by marketing communication to the business success of one of the biggest search engine company in the world—Google Inc..
In accordance to methods used in this paper, the goals of this study are primarily to advance new theory, interpret the current business practices of Google. Thus, literature review method through electronic desk researches was used in this study by identifying broad patterns and making predictions. Basically, the use of online desk researches let the researcher conduct investigation in less time and costs. Principally, this paper focuses on issues concerning the marketing communication practices of Google, the researcher analyzes the current scale and the structure by reviewing past literature. At the same time, the researcher determines the influencing factors and present problems concerning the marketing practices of the company. This paper decided to adopt the Literature review method to understand the issues behind marketing communication of Google Inc.
One of the major strengths of electronic resources is its practicality – data and information are collected quickly and it is easier to conduct than field research (Cooper, 1998). On the minus side, however, the data may not be recent or accurate. Moreover, data sometimes can be hard to find, depending on the subject. Basically, the data derived by others may not be relevant to the context under study. Nevertheless, the researcher did not encounter the aforementioned problems in desk research. For this study, the secondary sources of data were gathered not only from articles in journals, magazines, current events news, and books and other materials relating to Google Inc. Sources could be also collected using the online library Questia and other online search engines such as Yahoo, Mywebsearch, Ask, and Google itself. These sources provided the researcher a plethora of materials about the topic.
The changing world has then placed much emphasis on the importance of communication for effective marketing. This transition meant that organizations have to completely reformulate their conventional business aims and purposes from being process-focused to customer-centered (Lowenstein, 1997). Consumer demands during these modern times are more pressuring and challenging. The varying and ever-changing needs of the regular consumer are constantly dependent on the demands of daily survival. Today, the human population particularly the modern consumers are more knowledgeable and demanding. Aside from the demand to have the best product or service possible, the practical consumers increasingly require social responsibility from companies and each other. The majority of contemporary consumer judge companies on the way they treat the environment. Interestingly, the knowledge that every consumer possesses is still based in the communication strategies, programs and implementations provided by the business and its management. The knowledge about a new product is mainly based in marketing communications strategies such as advertising, direct selling, public relations, or the integration of all marketing communications strategies.
Luk (1996) affirmed that “the advent of new communication technologies has facilitated the use of a number of sophisticated marketing communications devices to support either mass marketing or focused marketing activities” (p. 67). With this fact, the present marketing communication mechanisms that operate in the industry today is a bit different with the past decades. The general concept of marketing communication pertains to any messages and related media used to communicate a product, service, brand, organization or company. Aside from the five usual major models of communication used – advertising, sales promotion, public relations and publicity, personal selling, and direct marketing (Neumann & Sumser 2002), others concepts like branding, graphic design, packaging, and online marketing are integrated. Marketing communications activities contribute to the organization's reputation and image (Daymon & Holloway 2002). In general, taking in consideration the existing culture of technology dependence and various market conditions, marketing communication practices used by local and international companies and organizations are mainly influenced by the new media technologies and equipment.
The changing world has then placed much emphasis on the importance of communication for effective marketing. All types of communication are involved in marketing communications, including literature, training, advertising, mail, telephone, product promotions and other contact relevant to marketing communications. Among the channel members, even follow-up on complaints as well as customer billing may be included within the communication loop. In order to effectively serve the marketing channel, correct timing and accuracy in communications is essential. Moreover, it is important for the company to recognize that all members of the channel have an obligation or important role in maintaining the efficacy of marketing communications. Organizations that capitalize on customers' active participation in organizational activities can gain competitive advantage through greater sales volume, enhanced operating efficiencies, positive word-of-mouth publicity, reduced marketing expenses, and enhanced customer loyalty (Reichheld & Sasser, 1990).
Channel communications works in a two-way system wherein information transfers to the user and bounces all the way back to the producer (Goldberg & McCalley 1992). In other words, marketing communications works like a feedback system, which allows company producers to relay information to the customers. In response to the provided information, consumers give certain reactions or behaviors. For example, the electronic transformation of the services offered by hotel industry will result to better and more efficient and effective customer service system. Moreover, the functionality of the online portal for the marketing and advertising needs of the hotel industry will most possibly result to increase customer reach, satisfaction level and return of investment. Furthermore, if consumers somehow become better customers – that is, more knowledgeable, participative, or productive – the quality of the service experience will likely be enhanced for the customer and the organization (Bowers, Martin and Luker 1990).
Some of the ways that companies acquired cost advantages are by improving process efficiencies, gaining unique access to a large source of lower cost materials, making optimal outsourcing and vertical integration decisions, or avoiding some costs altogether. The marketing concept states that the nature of the marketing orientated organization, whether product or service based, profit or non profit based, is the identification and genuine satisfaction of customers needs and wants, more effectively and efficiently than the competition (Lancaster 1999).
But actually, marketing communications is not limited on using a specific marketing communications vehicle to achieve deliberate goals. Instead, marketing communications is integrated to other communication approaches so as to ensure maximum effectiveness. It is believed that most communication experts at the present appear to agree that in order to increase the likelihood that their communication will work, it is necessary to integrate all aspects of the communications mix so that they work together. For this very same reason, this paper supports the assertion that marketing communication work better if it functions as whole or integrated rather than independent or solitary in application. According to Kitchen & De Pelsmacker (2004), marketing communication are among the most significant leap in communications for the past decades and considered by many organizations as a means for establishing and sustaining competitive advantage in marketing. This paper presents the concepts of marketing communication and how an advertising campaign of Google could be improved via a marketing communication strategy.
Google is one of the successful Internet-related commerce ever since the extreme evolution of dotcoms in 1990s and still the leader of the industry (Murphy & Scharl 2007, p. 301; Kumar et al 2002, p. 34; and Henry 2006, p. 60). Basically, the impressive achievement of the Google is embedded on their excellent business practices and core competencies. As seen, the Google’s success formula is not only about their proficient technology but also its insistent capability to arise with both profit-oriented and innovative projects.
Basically, Google started in January 1996 which is formerly as a research project of Larry Page and later on joined Sergey Brin during their studies at Stanford University in California as PhD students (Murphy & Scharl, 2007). In their research project, they aimed to found out the existing relationships between websites that would create excellent results in ranking compared to the current style or method which is to rank the results based on the number of times the seek out word/expression came into view on a certain page (Battelle, 2005). Actually, this search engine was originally named as "BackRub" because of its capabilities to check the backlinks which they believe that this will also estimate the importance of a certain site. But because they believed the name “Backrub” was not appealing, then in 1997 they change it to “google” (Trex, 2010).
Page and Brin tested their idea as part of their studies, they believed that the webpages with the greatest number of links to them from erstwhile extremely significant webpages must be the greatest significant webpages linked with the search which became the foundation for their search engine. As for evidence, the current search engine that Stanford University website uses was under the domain google.stanford.edu (Battelle, 2005). Basically, on September 15, 1997, the domain google.com was registered (MarkMonitor, 2010), and on September 4, 1998 the Google Inc. became incorporated. Initially, the investment raised for the new company valuing to almost $1.1 million which includes the $100,000 check from Andy Bechtolsheim, one of the Sun Microsystems originators (Google, 2010).
As of today, Google are not only known for its searching capabilities but also as an advertising medium. But formerly, both Page and Brin defy advertising pop-ups in a search engine. They are also against search engines that are linked with advertisements. Basically, they initiated a study concerning this type of advertisement in search engine during their studies in 1998 (Stross, 2008). However, as argued by Stross, (2008) Brin and Page soon changed their minds as they later on permitted simple text ads.
After, Google becomes incorporated in 1998, the company moved in Palo Alto in 1999. Palo Alto is actually known as home to numerous famous Silicon Valley technology startups. Because of the continues and quick growth of the company, Google Inc. leased a compound of from Silicon Graphics (SGI) in Mountain View, California at 1600 Amphitheatre Parkway in 2003 and later in 2006 they bought the place for about $319 million and named the place as Googleplex (Stross, 2006).
The Google search engine of Google Inc. Was appealing to the number of Internet users because of its simplicity and effective results (Thompson, 2003). The company also started selling advertisements associated with search keywords in year 2000 which were usually text-based in order keep up the neat page design and also maximize the speed of page loading (Google, 2010). As indicated in the company information, keywords were vended with respect to price bid combination and clickthroughs in which the bidding starts at 5 cents per click (Google, 2010).
Actually, the name "Google" came from the misspelled word "googol" (Google, 2010), referring to 10100, the number stand for number 1 followed by one hundred zeros. Due to increasing popularity of the search engine Google and having set up its way more and more into everyday communication, the verb "Google" was included in the Oxford English Dictionary and Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary in 2006, which stands for "to use the Google search engine to acquire information/data from the World Wide Web (Google, 2010)."
Google isn’t only about advertising and search engines. Actually, Google Inc. created different tools and services for the similar business environment such as advertising linkages, Web functions, and businesses’ solutions. The general public was also benefiting from the products and services offered by the company. Their powerful search engines are providing great information for its users.
Advertising- As stated in the 2007 Google’s Annual Company Report, 99% of Google's returns came from their advertising programs. Actually, Google reported $10.492 billion in total advertising revenues for the 2006 fiscal year. As seen, Google only earns $112 million with their licensing and other earnings (Google, 2010). Google is able to accurately track users' concerns across associated sites using Double-Click technology and Google Analytics (Google, 2010). Actually, one of the known advertising product of Google is their Google Adwords which permits their Web advertisers to display ads in Google's search outcomes and the Google Content Network. This is done using either cost-per-view system or a cost-per-click. On the other hand Google AdSense website owners or website publishers may also show some adverts on their own site. Google will share some part of the earnings to their publishers every time the ads are viewed and clicked (Google, 2010).
Software- One of the most popular service in Internet is the Google’s search engine. As reported in their 2007 annual report, Google shows dominance as the most utilized search engine on the internet with a 53.6% market share compared to Yahoo! and Live Search with only 19.9% and 12.9% market share, respectively (Google, 2010). As part of the creation of web search engine, Google indexes billions of Web pages which enable their users to search information they desire. With the use of keywords and operators, Google search engine can provide information in a time with an utmost of 1,000 outcomes for any definite search enquiry. In addition to this, Google has also associated their Web Search technology into some of their services such as Google News, Image Search, Google Product Search, Google Maps, the interactive Usenet archive Google Groups, and others. Moreover, Google has also now offering the public to upload pictures and videos in the internet. There are also now desktop applications offered by Google such as Google Desktop, Picasa, SketchUp and Google Earth.
Gmail- In addition to the products offered by Google, their Gmail is also one of their best innovation. Actually, Gmail is a free webmail, POP3 and IMAP offerings by Google. In the some areas like Germany and UK, it is formally known as Google Mail.
Enterprise products- Aside from internet-related products, Google has also came into enterprise market last February of 2002 as they launch their Google Search Appliance which aims to provide search technology to bigger business organizations.
Table 1. Financial Data
Source: Google 2008 Annual Report
The consolidated statements of income data for the years ended December 31, 2006, 2007 and 2008 and the consolidated balance sheet data at December 31, 2007, and 2008, shown in Table 1 derived from Google’s audited consolidated financial statements. From the reported financial figures, Google’s business progress has been developed speedily since setting up, consequential in considerably amplified returns, and this trend was expected to continue growing. But as indicated in the report, their return growth rate has usually refused over time. This decline was due of numerous business factors such as increasing competition, maintaining growth rates difficulty as Google’s returns augment to advanced levels and escalating development of the online marketing bazaar in certain nations. Moreover, the recent general economic recession may result in less business-related enquiries by customers and may cause advertisers to lessen the value they use on online advertising, which could depressingly influence the growth rate of Google’s revenues. The core essence of Google’s advertising programs was to give useful and relevant advertising to their users which are actually reflecting to their dedication to continuously develop the overall web experience. Thus, Google was expected to take several actions concerning the improvement ads relevance displayed on their websites and Google Network associates’ websites.
Moreover, the international revenues of Google have grown as a percentage of their total income returns to 51 percent in 2008 from 48 percent in 2007. This amplify in the portion of their revenues was derived from international markets results mainly from increased recognition of their advertising programs, boosts in their direct sales assets and customer support maneuvers and their continued development in creating localized versions of this products in these worldwide stocks, including a boost in the worth of the Japanese yen, the Euro, and other foreign exchanges in relation to the U.S. dollar in 2008 in contrast to 2007. The boost in the share of worldwide returns derived from global marketplaces augments Google’s contact to foreign exchanges fluctuations to U.S. dollar (see Appendix for more financial highlights).
Similar to other companies, Google also take great pride with their company culture and strongly gripped on it as one of their fundamental strengths. The Google’s culture supports the iteration of ideas to resolve complex technical challenges. Additionally, the company also considers individual thinking and creativity as part of the company Culture (The Google Culture, 2010). As an example, Google encourage their engineers to devote as much as 30% of their time to work on independent projects. Many of their significant new products have come from these independent projects, including AdSense, orkut and Google News.
As traced back in the history of Google, it was first considered as technology company and evolved into a technology, software, advertising internet, and media company all rolled into one. As seen in the progress of the company over time, Google took technology innovation very seriously as they compete aggressively for talent, and their people drive their innovation, technology development and operations. As indicated in the company Website, Google strive to hire the best engineers and computer scientists that will enable them to solve significant challenges concerning artificial intelligence, systems design, data mining, machine learning, networking, testing, software engineering, distributed systems, cluster design and other areas (The Google Culture, 2010). Google are also concerned to the environment of their talents where these talented people can have rewarding jobs and create technological innovations that have a constructive effect on the world through daily use by millions of people.
From this, it is evident that the main factors that add to the progress of Google are: their outstanding teamwork, ability to innovate, efficient communication, and distinctive recruitment procedures.
In the case of Google Inc., it can be said that the company has been able to use several strategic business model and employing various marketing communication strategies to be able to stay in their competitive position and to be able to provide quality services to their target audiences. One of the business models used by the company is the diversification of their business portfolio into the world wide web. Accordingly, the main goal of the Google Inc. to diversify is to cater to the emerging needs of the market. In this regard, the Google Inc. has been able to launch the Google’s multi-sided market while considering their marketing communication strategies. Basically, the Google’s multi-sided market enables the company to make profit out of network effects (See Figure 1).
In this manner, Google enables them to have a reliable pricing system. With their scalable architecture, this model was considered by some as disruptive business model. However, this model has the ability to broaden significantly the market of potential advertisers since it also possess efficient ad system and relevant ads.
Figure 1. Google’s Multi-sided Market Model
Like other companies, the business models in Google are perhaps the most crucial part of their progress and development. As Google Ltd. grows there is also the creation of the issues concerning on how the internet altered the traditional business models. However there is slight precise confirmation of exactly what this refers. In the logical idea, a business model is the means of making business by which an organization can uphold itself—that is, produce returns. The business model identifies how a business like Google does creates fortune by spelling out where it is situated in the chain of value.
As with other companies, some of their business models are quite simple. It somewhat goes like a business creates a service or a good and vends it to clients. If everything runs smoothly, the proceeds from sales surpass the operation costs and the business appreciates earnings. On the other hand, there are other models can be more complexly woven. Broadcasting is a classic illustration. Radio and afterwards television programming has been transmitted over the airwaves open to everyone with a receiver for a great deal of the precedent era. The broadcaster is element of a multifaceted set-up of content designers, distributors, advertisers, and viewers or listeners. Who creates wealth and how much is not for all time lucid at the beginning. The outcome depends on many hostile aspects.
But compared with the broadcasting model, the internet commerce in which Google mastered gave birth to innovative types of business models. Similar to the approach of the previous Microsoft, Google are now dominating the web market. However the internet is also probable to recreate tested models. Business models have been branded and categorized in numerous diverse methods. This is one Endeavour to illustrate an inclusive and convincing classification of business models visible on the internet. The anticipated classification is not intended to be thorough or perfect. Internet business models keep on evolving. New and appealing variants be able to be seen in the upcoming.
The models are executed in different means, as explained with illustrations. Furthermore, a business may merge numerous diverse models as component of its general Internet business stratagem. For case in point, it is not unusual for content-driven company to mix together marketing with a contribution model.
Business models have taken on greater significance freshly as an outline of intellectual property that can be secluded with an exclusive right. Certainly, business methods/models have fallen more and more contained by the dominion of patent law. Numerous business method patents significant to e-commerce have been arranged. However what is new-fangled and fresh as a business model is not for all time lucid. A little of the more notable patents may be defy in the courts.
The so-called web advertising model is an annexed of the conventional media relay model. The broadcaster, a web site, supplies content (typically, although not essentially, for free) and services (like IM, email, blogs) assorted with advertising communications in the appearance of banner advertisements. The banner ads can be the chief or solitary foundation of proceeds for the presenter. The presenter may be a content designer or a distributor of content produced somewhere else. The advertising model toils best when the quantity of spectator traffic is huge or extremely focused.
With respect to the numerous business models used by Google is the portal. Although Yahoo! is the leader of this model, Google also considered it. Actually a portal is somewhat a search engine that includes varied content or services. With this, a towering quantity of user traffic composes advertising gainful and allows additional diversification of site provisions. A tailored portal lets customization of the interface and content to the client. A position portal promotes a distinct client demographic. Aside from this, Google also uses the so-called Query-based Paid Placement which sells favorable link positioning (i.e., sponsored links) or advertising keyed to meticulous seek out expressions in a client enquiry, for instance Overture's trademark "pay-for-performance" model. Apparently, no one can’t deny that Google dominates the contextual Advertising/Behavioral Marketing in which freeware developer pack adware with the manufactured goods. For instance, a browser extension that automates authentication and form fill-ins, as well sends advertising links or pop-ups as the client surfs the internet. Contextual advertisers can sell besieged advertising based on one's online doings. With this, it is also evident that Content-Targeted Advertising which was pioneered by Google was also performing expressively since it expands the accuracy of explore advertising to the rest of the internet. Google recognizes the sense of a web page and then repeatedly sends pertinent ads when a client goes in that webpage.
Actually, business advertising model of Google lies under their Adsense Program (see Figure 2).
Figure 2. Monetizing the Web with AdSense
With the said model, it allows the user click on ad displayed on a website and then the Advertiser pays Google but Google also gives a percentage of that amount to the website displaying the ad. This model also considers the relevance of the ads displayed in publisher sites. This model was also known for its scalability to both websites and advertisers. The model was also easy to use whereas it is possible to embed images or even banner advertising.
From the background of Google Inc. shows that the internet and with the advent of e-commerce and search engines has transformed that approaches of business dealings. Devoid of the need for physical occurrence and every now and then only at the handle of a button, business dealings, financial operations and even consumer service is being carried on (Smith & Taylor, 1998). The World Wide Web has confirmed to offer well-organized communication associations between businesses and their customers lessening the funds used up on public affairs. The use of internet in business industry serves as a new alternative channel of communication other than traditional branch network for customers to contact and communicate with the firms. Nowadays, more and more customers, especially younger ones who are quicker to accept new technology, are accessing remote channels-telephone marketing; computer transactions and other virtual transactions-to transact their business affairs. These on-line customers demand even more control over their personal finances and value “anytime, anyplace, anywhere” customized access to financial services (Lee & Turban, 2001, p. 75).
Talking with the advantages of the internet, Google as in internet-based company created significant changes in the business world. With their marketing communication strategy, the creation of their powerful search engine combined with advertising capabilities, the company are now dominating not only as a search engine company but as an overall successful Internet-based business. Basically, the marketing communication strategy of Google was effective but for some, it was insane. The strategy especially the marketing communication strategy should be at least “systematic”, but in the case of Google, it was “insane” according to Microsoft chief executive Steve Ballmer.
Steve Ballmer argued that there are some issues that Google is like Microsoft 20 years ago—a rapid-growing business organization led by babyish, iconoclastic engineers who aim to revolutionize the world with ubiquitous, innovative technologies. Censors and experts of both organizations believe Google may perhaps in due course develop so huge that, identical to Microsoft, it will trudge on its rivals and strong-arm those that find in the means. As for evidence, they mention spots in which Mountain View has by now managed to outdo Redmond. The search engine of Google outperformed both Yahoo's and Microsoft's in terms of number of users. Moreover, Microsoft lost their best and talented employees including their former head of operations in China to Google. And now Google set up its own station close to Microsoft head office to catch the attention of renegades who don't desire to budge from Seattle to Silicon Valley.
But those who fear that Google is aiming for world domination fail to remember one significant fact: Though Google must battle in opposition to Microsoft, Microsoft by no means had a Microsoft to contend with. As for the previous and current age, Microsoft's continued their leadership and dominance in distribution of desktop computer operating systems which have by now obliged Google to create numerous costly decisions that are throbbing its bottom line. As for the record, Google lately rewarded $1 billion to Time Warner for a 5 percent ownership venture in AOL. That shifty scheme was motivated completely by Time Warner's concurrent dialogue with Microsoft, which was eager to shell out big cash to thump Google from its roost as AOL's search engine of preference.
Aside from this, Google was also afraid that Bill Gates will influence the ubiquity of his operating system by entrenching MSN Search in the next edition of Windows for innovative computers. To continue Microsoft at bay, Google is paying millions of dollars to Dell, one of the major PC producers worldwide, to make Google the default search engine on its new technology. Google may be gigantic, but Microsoft is still a lot of orders of amount better.
But despite of this, and considering the marketing communication strategy of Google, it can be easily identifiable that the new online advertising companies have absolutely no chance than to follow Google. But their biggest threat was Yahoo and Microsoft. The two giants have the capacity to grow even bigger but none seem happy with the advertising and search industry and this is what Steve Ballmer are saying, the current growth strategy of Google was insane. Ballmer said that Google was growing too fast, but they had failed to make a success of efforts to diversify beyond search with ads. Ballmer believed that a random collection of people doing their own thing might not add value which is currently the practice of Google as they allow their engineers to spend 20 per cent of their working hours on personal schemes.
Despite of the triumphant standing of Google in e-based industry, there are a small number of criticisms in the organisational culture which was raised by Ballmer. Ballmer was actually attacking the weakness of Google such as non-attendance of clear managing structure, poor employee dealings and employment ethics, and its casual employment culture.
A Business must have a core supervision structure. Even though Google has Sergey and Larry plus Schmidt as main people, all other staff are not firmly controlled. Organisational supervision arrangement is an essential aspect in preparation and decision-making (Kay, 1996 and Thompson & Strickland, 2003). In the situation of Google’s staff, the unclear definition of management structure can lead to organisational conflict. Recognising the range of skills and Google's, argument is a risk because workers have consistent principles and understanding inconsistent situations (Darling & Walker, 2001). The need of hierarchy resulted to uncertainty in relation to organize and decision making power. To deal with such administration theories serve as eminent body of understanding that will guide the administrator in making outstanding judgments for the profit of the entire business. Likewise, the perceptive of management composition is unswervingly related to improved business performance needing Google’s administration to re-evaluate its business composition, area of control and job positions.
Google is recognized with an exceptional employment procedure yet some factors of the practices are censured. According to some of the experts, Google’s staffing procedure is constricted. Businesses around the globe undertake transformations and exploit a mixture of job selection and recruitment methodologies (Butcher & Clarke 2003, pp. 477). In support of Google’s development, there is a requirement to reconsider and revise their HRM purposes mainly its staffing plan to assemble the claims of the mark market. Numerous businesses started to considerably exchange their workers-managing rules and organize them in innovative guidelines (Budhwar & Debrah 2001, pp. 9). It is recognized that assortment and staffing of possible Google's is focussed to the achievement and execution of business’ goals in the large-scale picture (Boxall & Purcell 2000 pp.183). Skills, knowledge, and abilities that comprise work-related data and the essential human capacities to carry out definite work actions (Nelson 1997, pp. 39) have to be measured by Google HR panel instead of educational expertise. The significance of valid abilities cannot be gaudy, as the connection amid them and individual show in the association is entrenched (Davis 1995, pp.132 & Gatewood et al 1994, pp. 235). It is established that superiority, capability and elasticity among the staff had economically reinstated amount of job accomplished and insensitive compliance increased throughout widespread practice.
Supplementary, they are also called upon its challenging work dealings and employment principles as seen on the unfair action of contractual workers and incompetent business performance. Approximately 30% of Google’s entirety workforces are contractual, not given any worker benefits, and treated unjustly. In solving those issues, selecting, empowering and providing pay and profit to workers are necessary. Let say, the 12-hour work day is perhaps nerve-racking particularly as soon as outlooks are essential to be going beyond (i.e. the workloads and job conditions) amongst employers and employees. A seen in many cases, stress worsens the ineffectiveness of the workers to do their errands. As stressed in the paper of Crampton et. al. (1995), businesses can alleviate stress within their environment through stress management efforts. The main stressors in the place of work have to be correctly recognized and measured, and the anxious workers have to assist their workers recognize their main individual sources of pressure/stress. In addition, the workforces have to be aided in recognizing their own stressors and anxiety lenience limits. By gaining knowledge of how to deal with stress, staff first has to make out those stressors which they respond to for the reason that not each one responds the similar way to the similar stressors. To assist this procedure, businesses should offer wellbeing risk assessment that check workers' levels of stress. Generally, the management and knowledge of business's human capital is essential to its awareness. Sequentially, the responsibility of HRM desires to alter from spontaneous to practical. If HRM is using business's competitive gain it desires to go afar just for retaining and attracting excellent individuals.
In general, the negative concerns of Google especially on their marketing communication strategy are not yet reflecting on their present business performance. But despite of this, it is foresee that those negative factors might cause significant threats to their business success. Its organisational culture is asserted not to be set to administer its expansion. In accordance to the said negative factors in Google, they certainly have their own tactics and idea of addressing such problems. But who knows? This strategy could be effective since Google already done their strategic planning.
As stated, the Google’s success can be traced back on the excellent marketing communication strategy and core competencies. Actually, the idea of marketing communication strategy is extremely significant to the member of their organisation since the creation of it. According to Daft, (2003), the management of marketing communication strategy necessitates their administrators to handle changes in accordance to creativity and innovation. The capacity of Google to innovate by considering their marketing communication strategy enriched with diverse procedures and encouraging culture generates sustainable competitive advantage. Along with the positioned high-leverage innovators, Google stand outs with overall proficiency and capability. For instance, Booz Allen (Anonymous, 2007, pp. 32) illustrates Google as a leader in internet search engine which creates impressive ideas with passionate swiftness or the so-called “70-20-10 Rule” whereas the workforce/employees let say the engineers are recommended to employ 70% of their working hours on main business functions, 20% on other associated business jobs, and 10% on things they love to do. Businesses like Google, compared to small business are quick enough when it comes to the context of innovation adoption for the reason of greater contact to resources and requirement for strategic planning (Rogers, 1995). Because of the high competition rate among Internet companies, the creativity and innovation practices were apparent in Google. Innovation as a guide for industries in the twenty first century will be the reliable wrenching power that the business must either struggle to take on or endure the cost of being left behind by competitors. As seen in the environment of Google, their employees are courage to raise their ideas, suggestions, or anything that is relevant to latent profit-gaining practices throughout a variety of ways like intranet, conferences, and other communication forms. In area of development of product, Google stress on the possibility and ease of use of pertinent information. The possibility is maintained by Google’s aim of waiting with somewhat unique and economically feasible but the initiative of ease of use works toward probable users. With respect to innovation, the company has extended its features and services. As seen, Henry, (2006, p. 60) argues that they are currently no longer a search engine business but now as a web-computing applications business. The classy skill of Google is on its vital success variables that create it a sustainable competitive company in its detailed line of business.
In conclusion and from the discussed issues previously, the marketing communication approaches especially in the case of Google Inc. is more effective if used as whole rather than in independent ways. It mainly integrates marketing communications messages, builds consumer relationships, and works to the advantage of the business organization, thus resulting to outstanding performance. The benefits are countless. Conversely, the barriers are limited by its economic benefits. In Google Inc. marketing communication is likely not just an option but a requirement for many clients and agencies around the world. Thus, marketing as a long-term and developing trend aspect of business management is essential in business.
Anonymous (2007). “R&D Efficiency,” Strategic Direction, vol. 23, no. 5, 31-33.
Battelle, J. (2005). "The Birth of Google". Wired Magazine. Accessed: June 01, 2010 from <http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/13.08/battelle.html?tw=wn_tophead_4>.
Bonn, M.A., Furr, H.L., & Susskind, A.M. (1998). Using the Internet as a pleasure travel planning tool: An examination of the sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics among internet users and non-users. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, vol 22 issue 3. 303-317.
Borenstein, S. & Saloner, G. (2001). 'Economies and electronic commerce', Journal of Economic Perspectives 15 (2001), 3-12.
Bowers, M.R., Martin, C.L. & Luker, A. (1990). “Trading places: Employees as Customers, Customers as Employees”, Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 4, Spring issue, pp. 55-69.
Boxall, P. & Purcell, J. (2000). “Strategic Human Resource Management: Where have we come from and where should we be going,” International Journal of Management Review, vol. 2, no. 2, 183-185.
Budhwar, PS & Debrah, YA (Eds.) 2001, Human Resource Management in Developing Countries, Routledge, London.
Butcher, D. & Clarke, M. (2003). “Redefining Managerial Work: Smart Politics,” Management Decision, vol. 41, no. 5, 477-487.
Cooper, H. (1998). Synthesizing Research: A Guide for Literature Reviews.
Crampton, S.M. Hodge, J.W. Mishra, J.M. & Price, S. (19950. “Stress and Stress Management,” SAM Advanced Management Journal, vol. 60 issue 3, 10-11.
Darling, J.R. & Walker, W.B. (2001). “Effective Conflict Management: Use of the Behavioral Style Model,” Leadership and Organization Development Journal, vol. 22, no. 5, 230-242.
Davis, D. (1995). “Form, Function, and Strategy in Boundaryless Organizations,” Howard, A (Ed.), The Changing Nature of Work, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco Davis.
Daymon, C. & Holloway, I. (2002). Qualitative Research Methods in Public Relations and Marketing Communications, Routledge, London.
Gatewood, R., Barrick, M., & Field, H. (1994). Human Resource Selection, 3rd Edition, Harcourt Brace, Fort Worth.
Goldberg, R. & McCalley, R. (1992). Marketing Channel Development and Management. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
Google (2010). Company History. Accessed: June 01, 2010 from http://www.google.com/intl/en/corporate/history.html
Henry, C. (2006). “Periscopic media tour,” Strategy & Leadership, vol. 23, no. 5, 58-66.
Kay, J. (1996). the Foundations of Corporate Success, Oxford University Press, London.
Kitchen, P.J. & De Pelsmacker, P. (2004). Integrated Marketing Communications: A Primer, Routledge, New York
Kumar, R. et al. (2002). “The web and social networks,” IEEE Computer, Vol. 35, No. 11, 32-36.
Lancaster, G. (1999). ‘Marketing Research’, Strategic Marketing viewed 05 October 2006 from http://www.da-group.co.uk/geoff/research.htm.
Lee, M.K.O., & Turban, E., (2001). A trust model for consumer Internet shopping. International Journal of Electronic Commerce 6(1). Source: Business Source Corporate. 75.
Lowenstein, M.W. (1997). The customer loyalty pyramid, Quorum Books, Westport.
Luk, TK (1996) ‘Success in Hong Kong: Factors Self-Reported by Successful Small Business Owners’, Journal of Small Business Management, 34: 3, 68+
MarkMonitor (2010). WHOIS - google.com Accessed: June 01, 2010 from http://whois.dnsstuff.com/tools/whois.ch?ip=google.com
Murphy, J. & Scharl, A. (2007). “An investigation of global versus local online branding,” International Marketing Review, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 297-312.
Nelson, J. (1997). “The Boundaryless Organization: Implications for Job Analysis, Recruitment, and Selection,” Human Resource Planning, vol. 20, no. 4, 39-40.
Neumann, E. & Sumser, R. (2002). ‘Marketing Communications: A Vital Element of Achieving Change’, The Public Manager, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 9+.
Reichheld, F.F. & Sasser, W.E. Jr. (1990). “Zero Defections: Quality Comes to Services”, Harvard Business Review, vol. 68, September-October issue, pp. 105-111.
Rogers, E.M. (1995). Diffusion of Innovations, 4th ed., The Free Press, New York, NY.
Smith, PR, & Taylor, J. (1998). Marketing Communications – An Integrated Approach. (4th Edition) London: Kogan Page.
Stross, R. (2006). "Google to buy headquarters building from Silicon Graphics." Silicon Valley / San Jose Business Journal.
Stross, R. (2008). Planet Google: One Company's Audacious Plan to Organize Everything We Know, New York : Free Press, September 2008. ISBN 978-1-4165-4691-7 Cf. 3-4.
The Google Culture (2010). Corporate Information. Accessed: June 01, 2010 from http://www.google.com/intl/en/corporate/culture.html
Thompson, A.A. & Strickland, A.J. (2003). Strategic Management: Concepts and Cases, International Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Thompson, B. (2003). "Is Google good for you?" BBC News. Accessed: June 01, 2010 from < http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/3334531.stm>
Trex, E. (2010). 9 People, Places & Things That Changed Their Names. Accessed: June 01, 2010 from <http://www.mentalfloss.com/blogs/archives/22707>