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04/12/2012

THE KEY FACTORS OF INDICATORS IN THE MOTIVATION OF EMPLOYEES IN AN ORGANIZATION: CASE OF APPLE INC.


THE KEY FACTORS OF INDICATORS IN THE MOTIVATION OF EMPLOYEES IN AN ORGANIZATION: CASE OF APPLE INC.

 

 

Executive Summary

            This paper investigates the different factors that are related with the indicators of motivation of employees in Apple Inc. Using data from 55 employees of Apple (50 team members and 5 team leaders), the result showed that the material or financial reward and personal growth are the two factors which highly affect the motivation of the employees, while ease and security, progression, authority and power, internal competition, autonomy, recognition, good image of organization and affiliation are factors which moderately affect the employees motivation to work. On the other hand, interest, commercial outlook, personal principles, level of activity and achievement are the factors which do not affect the employees’ motivation to work.

            Upon analyzing the behavior of the respondents, it shows that the current motivation activities and strategies of Apple Inc. are very effective, because the result of the study shows high rate in terms of indicators of motivations at work.

 

1.0  Introduction

1.1 Topic Introduction

Motivation at work has been an accepted area of literature for a long time, particularly from the 1930s and on wards (Lee-Ross 2002). Motivation is defined as the process of gratifying the internal needs of individuals via actions and behaviors. It focuses on the complexity of mental and physical drives, joint with the environment which makes the people perform the way they do (p. 55). Robert Dubin described motivation as the force which moves the person to action, and enables him to continue in the course of action that has already been initiated (cited in Kumar & Sharma 2001). Therefore, without motivation, employee or worker will not contribute to the success of performance of the organization (Agrawal 1995). Employee needs the skills, knowledge and capabilities in order to acquire the results according to the requirements of the organization. However, it is also vital for them to have the will to achieve the said results. The degree of motivation of the employees is connected to their level of commitment towards their work and determination to work based on high standards (Pergamon Flexible Learning 2005).

For the last many decades, due to the impact of globalization, huge marketplace increased the intensiveness of competition in the world market in order to cut costs, at the same time, increase the profits in a different range of manufacturing and service industry (Hill 1994) – as a result, only those companies who have the ability to conform with these changes can survive. Human resource or the employees are considered as the most important resource in any organization. This is because HR’s roles focus on transforming the raw materials and other inputs into the products or services to be offered in the market. Thus, the efficiency and effectiveness of the employees can greatly affect the overall image of the company in the marketplace. As a result, companies all over the world are focusing on ho to attract, retain and motivate employees in order to achieve the goals of the organizations – this vary from financial and non-financial motivators such as rewards, incentives, appraisal, promotions etc. This thesis will focus on presenting the key factors of indicators in the motivation of employees in Apple, Inc. – one of the most popular companies and brands in the world. It will present and will be based on the different theories about motivation.

 

1.2  Reasons for Choosing Topic

The primary reason of the author in choosing this topic is because of the fact that motivation is considered as one of the most important issues in human resource management, particularly in the current business environment that is experiencing massive changes including globalization and Information Technology. Companies from different parts of the globe are not just competing in order to have a good position in the market, they are also competing against each other in order to attain or attract qualified, skilled and efficient employees in order to improve the company’s performance. The process of acquiring employees involve huge amount of money and effort which are spend in recruitment, selection and hiring, therefore, maintaining the loyalty of the employees towards the company can help in order save these resources, at the same time, maintain the quality of performance of the entire company. Another important reason is the fact that there are lots of literatures and resources available in the Internet which can be easily retrieved or accessed that will help to smooth the progress of the author’s research.

 

1.3  Company Selection

The company selected by the author was Apple Inc. It was chosen because the company is considered as one of the most popular and most loved brands and companies in the world. Furthermore, the company is also popular in the field of human resource because of its different efforts, strategies and programmes being implemented in order to attract and retain their employees.

Apple Inc. boosted the revolution of personal computer in the 1970s with the introduction of Apple II and the reinvention of the personal computer in the 1980s with the Macintosh. Since then, the company had been committed in bringing the best of personal computing experience towards the students, educators, creative professionals as well as consumers in the world by offering innovative hardware, software as well as Internet services (Funding Universe n.d.).

Apple was established by Steve Wozniak (26) and Steve Jobs (21), both are college dropouts. The partnership of these two began few years earlier when Wozniak, an electronic engineer began building his boxes which enables him to make long-distance phone calls for free. The said pair sold several hundred boxes (Funding Universe n.d.).

 

1.4  Research Objectives

The main aim of this thesis is to investigate the different factors that are related with the motivation of employees in Apple Inc. In line with this, the following are the specific objectives of the study:

·         to present the different motivational theories at work;

·         to illustrate the ranking of motivators in Apple Inc. working environment; and

·         to analyze the different indicators of motivation of employees in Apple Inc.

 

1.5  Research Approach

The research strategy that this study utilized was descriptive method. A descriptive method intends to show facts which pertains on the nature and status of a given situation, as it exists, during the time of the study (Creswell 1994). It focuses on the relationships and connections, together with the different practices which exists, beliefs and processes that are ongoing, effects and influences that are being felt and observed, or even the trends that are currently developing. Thus, it tries to describe the present conditions, events as well as system based on the different impressions and perceptions of the respondents of the research (Creswell 1994). 

This research is a cross-sectional due to limited time. It is a study of a given phenomenon at a given time (Saunders & Lewis 2003). For that reason, cross-sectional studies commonly use the survey strategy and may seek in order to describe the incidence of a phenomenon or to compare factors in different organizations.

 

2.0  Research Materials

2.1  Gathering Information

This study used survey research method for gathering information. This can help in order to assess the distribution of some variables including the proportion of the population of different age groups, sex, religion, castes and languages, knowledge, attitude and adaption of practices regarding a given issue, together with the different information of the same nature regarding the population (Commonwealth of Learning 2000). In addition, survey also help in order to measure the degree and nature of the impact and the exposed influence of a project towards the population for reasonable length of time. A semi-structured questionnaire was used in the study. A five-likert scale was used in this measure. In the Likert technique, the degree of agreement or disagreement is given a numerical value which range from 1 to 5, therefore, the numerical value can be calculated from all of the responses (Underwood 2004). This helped in order to know the different motivators from the perspectives of the employees. The questionnaire is consists of 3 parts, the socio-economic information of the respondent, motivating factors and attitudes of employees towards work.

For the motivating factors inside the organization, 15 factors were considered as a summary of the different motivators explained and detailed in 5 motivational theories explained in literature review, which include: material and financial reward, personal growth, ease and security, progression, authority and power, internal competition, autonomy, recognition, good image of the organization, affiliation, interest, commercial outlook, personal principles, level of activity and achievement (see figure 1).

Figure  SEQ Figure \* ARABIC 1 Motivators Based on 5 Motivational Theories

 

 

Table  SEQ Table \* ARABIC 1 Motivators and Statements in Questionnaire

 

Motivators

Questionnaire Statements

Autonomy

The company and my work gives me the opportunity to organize my own approach to work (opportunities to work independently).

Personal Growth

The company and my work enable me improve by overcoming challenges, hitting targets and being stretched as an individual.

Commercial Outlook

The successful commercial performance of the company, including increase in sales, reduction in the cost and probability.

Personal Principles

The company and my work enable me to uphold ideas, at the same time, conform to high ethical and quality standard.

Authority and Power

The company and my work enables me to exercise my authority, take responsibility, negotiate and be in the position in influence others.

Progression

The company and my work enable me to have the opportunities to undergo further training and development and acquire new skills and capabilities.

Affiliation

The company and my work enable me to interact with other people.

 

The company and my work offer opportunities for promotion.

Internal competition

Competition inside the company enables me to benchmarked and compared with others in favorable manner.

Achievement

Praise, positive feedback and outward signs of recognition for achievements.

Interest

The company and my job offer me the variety, interest and stimulation.

Level of Activity

My position and work enable me to enjoy multitasking and have to cope with pressure.

Ease and Security

I am secure about my job and position in the company, as well as contextual factors including good condition of working environment.

Material and Financial Reward

Financial reward, salary and benefits

Good Image of the Organization

My pride about the organization I belong.

           

On the other hand, in order to measure the satisfaction of the respondents, they are also asked to rate about the different indicators of motivations inside the organization. As have reviewed from different literatures and from the 5 motivational theories, figure 2 shows the different indicators of motivation inside the organization and the factors included in the questionnaire.

Figure  SEQ Figure \* ARABIC 2 Indicators of Motivations In the Organization

 

 

2.2  Secondary Data

Secondary data was gathered from different literatures and studies from the past. These include published articles from different human resource or organizational journals, theses and related studies about psychology. These resources had helped the author to have background information about the topic, at the same time, help to support the result of the study.

 

2.3  Primary Data

Primary data was gathered from 55 employees of Apple Inc. This includes 50 team members and 5 team leaders. The teams were selected by random sampling method, which help to ensure that the entire population was properly represented and prevent bias in selecting the respondents.

 

2.4  Motivation Theories

There are different theories which focus on the different factors and aspects that are related with motivation, including the different elements in the physical, emotional and social needs, requirements and satisfaction of employees.

 

2.4.1 Carrot and Stick Approach

The theory pertains on the notions that the employees are motivated chiefly by different material resources. The exponent of this theory was F. W. Taylor. According to his Scientific Management School, employees are considered as a factor of production. Thus, this theory does not focus on the possible influence of different human factors, because it treats human beings as inert machines that are devoid of any inner feelings (Pergamon Flexible Learning 2005).

 

2.4.2 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

As oppose to the first theory, Maslow enables to offer a basis for motivation and began intellectual dialogue in the literature. The theory focuses on the presumptions that man is a wanting being with the different needs, of which some are lower in scale, while some are higher in scale or the system of values (see Appendix A). The needs are the following:

  • Physiological needs – are considered as those things that are considered as essential needs for survival which include food, drink, sleep, rest etc.;
  • Safety, security and stability needs – pertains on the need to be free from any danger and to live in a stable, non-hostile environment;
  • Love, social affiliation, membership or belonging needs – there pertains on the needs of the company of other humans;
  • Esteem: self- and public esteem – these are the self respect, value in the opinion of others, public appreciation, recognition and attention. This enables individual to know that what he or she is doing is important or worthwhile.; and
  • Self-actualization – this is considered as the highest level of needs which can be satisfied by different opportunities which will help to develop and improve the talents and capabilities to the fullest in order to achieve personal goals and objectives (Pergamon Flexible Learning 2005).

This theory focuses on the idea that individual growth is the vehicle for the success of organization; therefore, it is important to focus on identifying the needs of individual employee and promote satisfaction. This will help in order for the employees to progress toward self-actualization which will enable the organization to be successful (Sims 2002).

 

2.4.3 McClelland’s Achievement Theory

            According to McClelland (1961) individuals have three basic motivational needs which include: affiliation, power and achievement. The affiliation is the strong desire of individual for the approval other others or the social acceptance and friendship. The power pertains on being in control in changing events and exercising the influence over others. The achievement is the need to achieve and win. With this, the theory focuses on the implementation of learning, education and training in order to stimulate motivation. It is also important to focus on the flow or route of the task, together with the appraisals (Sims 2002).

 

2.4.4 Herberg’s Hygiene Theory

            This theory focuses on two vital factors which include: the outcome which can lead to high levels of motivation and job satisfaction; and the outcomes which can prevent people from being dissatisfied. This theory believes that people have two sets of needs which include motivator and hygiene needs. Motivator needs pertains on the nature of work – how challenging it is. Hygiene needs can be satisfied by outcomes including pleasant and comfortable working conditions, pay, job security, good relationships with co-workers and effective supervision. According to Herzberg, the following are vital motivators:

  • Recognition
  • Advancement
  • Work content
  • Possibility of growth
  • Achievement
  • Responsibility

The following are the hygiene factors:

  • Status
  • Working conditions
  • Company policy and administrations
  • Money
  • Supervision
  • Interpersonal relations
  • Security (Sims 2002)

 

2.4.5 Theory X and Theory Y

            Theory X and Theory Y was introduced by McGregor. The theory Y focuses on the idea that the main incentives to work are being offered by different material things as well as constant supervision. On the other hand, the theory Y pertains on the idea that the manager plays a vital role in creating favorable climate for growth, for the development of self-reliance, self-confidence as well as self-actualization via improving trust, at the same time, reducing the process of supervision to a minimum. Therefore, this pertains on enabling the employees to work on their own (Pergamon Flexible Learning 2005).

 

2.4.6 Vroom’s Expectancy Theory

            This theory explains motivation via the perception of what a person believes will happen. Thus, human motivation is being affected by anticipated rewards and costs. The employee will be motivated to work toward a given goal if it is being perceived that personal needs will be satisfied. The employee’s desire for a goal (valence) multiplied by the expectation of the organization (expectancy) is equal to satisfaction and motivation.

            This theory identified the following motivators:

  • A work environment that will promote good performance, together with attainable goals;
  • Training, support and encouragement;
  • Understanding of what people want to get out of their work;
  • Personal recognition and praise, fair performance reviews, increase in pay and other positive outcomes;
  • Poor performance will have fewer positive and more negative results than the good performances (Sims 2002).

2.4.7 Commonalities in Theories of Motivation

            Different motivational theories show commonalities, which pertains on motivation as the form of intention and evident in three vital behavioral dimensions, which include: attention, effort and persistence (Mitchell & Daniels 2003). Furthermore, constructs including self-efficacy, personality and expectancies are causes of motivation. With this, it shows that attention, effort and persistence are vital implications or indicators of motivation. Attention is the thoughts and actions of the person – where the mental energy is exerted, while effort pertains on the magnitude or level of mental and physical resources that are devoted to some of the vital task or set of tasks, on the other hand, persistence is the continued attention and effort over time. Another important factor is the multilevel which pertains on the relationships, cause and effects. The study of Chen & Bliese (2002) showed the impact of different levels of leadership climate towards the efficacy beliefs. The last aspect is the process oriented of the motivation research which pertains on the different determinants of motivation which range on distal-proximal continuum including the distal influences impact towards the attention, effort and persistence (Kanfer & Chen 2008).

            According to Pintrich & Marx (1993), there are three traditional indicators of motivation of behavior of individual, which include: choice of task, level of engagement or activity in the task and willingness to persist at the task. According to Ruth & Chen (2002) behavioral indicators of motivation are, but not limited to, willingness to engage in task, attendance, active participation in a task, actively seeking feedback or clarification and setting challenging but obtainable goals (Kanfer & Chen 2008).

The indicators for motivated workers are:

  • Willingness to work;
  • Giving the best at work;
  • Having a sense of belongingness and pride in the organization and the development of the effectiveness of management;
  • Having an untiring belongingness towards the society;
  • Works with team spirit;
  • Exert extra effort in order to meet the deadline of the tasks (Agrawal 1995).
  • Orientation to work; and
  • Persistence (Adair 2004)

 

3.0  Analysis

3.1 Demographics of Respondents

            Tables 2,3 and 4 show the socio-economic demographic profile of the population used in the study. These factors are important because the socio-economic background of individuals directly and indirectly affect how they perceive or how they relate to a specific issue or problem.

 

Table  SEQ Table \* ARABIC 2 Gender of the Respondents

 

 

Frequency

Percent

Cumulative Percent

Male

28

50.9

50.9

Female

27

49.1

100.0

Total

55

100.0

 

 

Figure  SEQ Figure \* ARABIC 3 Gender of the Respondents

 

Table 1 and figure 1 show the gender groups of the respondents. It shows that 50% of respondents are male and 49.1% are female. This shows that the gap or difference between the numbers of the respondents in terms of gender is only small.

 

Table  SEQ Table \* ARABIC 3 Age of Respondents

 

 

Frequency

Percent

Cumulative Percent

18 – 25

21

38.2

38.2

26 – 33

18

32.7

70.9

34 – 41

11

20.0

90.9

42 – above

5

9.1

100.0

Total

55

100.0

 

 

           

Figure  SEQ Figure \* ARABIC 4 Age of Respondents

 

 

 

            Table 2 and figure 2 show that majority of the respondents belong to the 18 – 25 age group (38.2%), followed by 26 – 33 (32.7%) and 34 – 41 (20%). Only 9.1% of the respondents are from ages 42 and above. The age of the respondents is an important factor because it indicates their experience in their respective roles or responsibilities. Thus, their experience in their past companies and jobs also enables them to compare the current protocols and standards being implemented in Apple, Inc and their past employers.

 

Table  SEQ Table \* ARABIC 4 Years of Stay in the Company

 

 

Frequency

Percent

Cumulative Percent

Below 1 year

9

16.4

16.4

1 – 2 years

18

32.7

49.1

3 – 5 years

9

16.4

65.5

6 – 10 years

11

20.0

85.5

11 – above

8

14.5

100.0

Total

55

100.0

 

 

 

 

Figure  SEQ Figure \* ARABIC 5 Years of Stay in the Company

 

            32.7% of all the respondents have already stayed in the company for 1 to 2 years. This is followed by respondents who have stayed in the company for as long as 6 to 10 years (20%). 16.4% of the respondents have been in the company for months and 3 to 5 years, while 14.5% of the respondents stayed in the company for too long, 11 years and above. The duration of the stay in the company indicates the satisfaction or motivation level of the employees. This is because the employees have been able to create or established strong relationship and loyalty with the company. Thus, the number of the employees who have stayed in the company for long time indicates the efficiency and capability of the company in retaining their employees by continuous listening and satisfying their needs and demands. 

 

3.2 Ranking of Motivating Factors

 

Table  SEQ Table \* ARABIC 5 Motivating Factors

 

Rank

Motivating Factors

Mean

Interpretation

1

Material/Financial Reward

1.00

greatly increases my motivation to work

2

Personal Growth

1.33

greatly increases my motivation to work

3

Ease and Security

1.58

tends to increase my motivation to work

4

Progression

1.64

tends to increase my motivation to work

5

Authority and Power

1.78

tends to increase my motivation to work

6

Internal Competition

1.82

tends to increase my motivation to work

7

Autonomy

2.11

tends to increase my motivation to work

8

Recognition

2.13

tends to increase my motivation to work

9

Good image of the organization

2.18

tends to increase my motivation to work

10

Affiliation

2.45

tends to increase my motivation to work

11

Interest

2.62

has no effect on my motivation to work

12

Commercial Outlook

2.62

has no effect on my motivation to work

13

Personal Principles

2.64

has no effect on my motivation to work

14

Level of Activity

2.75

has no effect on my motivation to work

15

Achievement

2.76

has no effect on my motivation to work

 

            Table 5 shows the ranking of motivators according to the respondents. It shows the different motivation factors which greatly or slightly affect the motivation of the employees. Motivation factors are considered as job factors which help to increase motivations, but whose absence does not necessarily result to dissatisfaction (Pride & Hughes 2009). The respondents were asked to rate how the motivators listed, which were all based from all the motivational theories reviewed, affect their behavior towards their work. This will enable to present the top motivators or factors which push the employees to strive for the best in order to meet the objectives and goals of the organization.

The result showed that 2 of the factors highly motivates them, 8 moderately influence their motivation, while 5 factors do not affect their motivation towards work. In any organization, it is important to focus on the top motivating factors in the working environment, this is because, it can help in order to know and identify the needs and demands of the employees, which can help in order to support and improve their performance, by improving the employee and employer relationship.

            The top motivating factor for the Apple Inc. employees is the material or financial reward (mean = 1.00). Thus, it pertains on the financial motivation which occurs from direct or indirect monetary benefits. This includes financial techniques of motivation which involve financial expenditure for the organization, by increasing the money income of the employees (Malhotra & Qureshi n.d.). Different literatures from the past showed that pay or monetary incentives are considered as one of the most vital factors which the people take into account in seeking and accepting a job offer (Barber & Bretz 2000 cited in Latham 2007). The result showed that the Carrot and Stick approach and Hierarchy of Needs theory, which included material and financial needs, are vital factors which motivate people to work at their best.

            As a support, the respondents considered personal growth (mean = 1.33) as the second most important motivator. Personal growth is considered as one of the important factor in the self-actualization, thus, it is important because it enables people to control his or her own future. This help in order to change the way that the employees think about their work, which will help them to become more capable and give them the purpose in coming to work. This is because it enables to plug into the natural human tendency to look out for them (Bruce & Pepitone 1998). This factor is included in most of the motivational factor, because it pertains on human factors influence in production. This pertains on the opportunity to further develop or improve individual’s skills and abilities, which are included in self-actualization in hierarchy of needs; advancement and money in Hygiene theory; self-actualization in Theory XY; and training support and encouragement in expectancy theory. 

            The result of the study showed that there are 8 motivating factors which moderately influence the employees. These factors are considered as the supporting motivating factors to the two primary motivating factors: ease and security (mean = 1.58), progression (mean = 1.64), authority and power (mean = 1.78), internal competition (mean = 1.82), autonomy (mean = 2.11), recognition (2.13), good image of the organization (mean = 2.18) and affiliation (mean = 2.45).

            All of these factors are considered as human factors which help in order to drive motivation inside the organization, which are all included in different motivational theories. Ease and security is described in Hierarchical theory as the need to be free from any danger and to live in a stable and non-hostile working environment (Pergamon Flexible Learning 2005).  In addition, the Hygiene theory considered it as status inside the organization, working conditions and security (Sims 2002). Above all, it is the working environment which promotes good performance in the Expectancy theory.

            Authority and power and autonomy are also two factors that are connected. This pertains on having the responsibility and their authority to do their jobs, at the same time, influence other people. It is explained by the Achievement theory as the power or the control in changing events and exercising influence over others (Sims 2002). It is considered as responsibility and supervision in the Hygiene theory; self-reliance in Theory XY; and

On the other hand, internal competition and affiliation are connected on belonging needs. Thus, it pertains on love, social affiliation, membership or belonging needs in Hierarchical theory; and affiliation in Achievement theory.

Recognition is considered as one of the most important non-monetary motivators inside an organization. This is because; it is very helpful in order to materialize other important motivators, such as self-confidence, self-reliance, etc. Thus, it is considered as esteem in the Hierarchy of Needs theory or the self- and public esteem which pertains on self-respect, opinion of others, public appreciation, recognition and attention, which enables individual to know that what he or she is doing is being appreciated and accepted (Pergamon Flexible Learning 2005). Thus, it is considered as achievement or the will to achieve and win in the Achievement theory (Sims, 2002); recognition in Hygiene theory; and personal recognition and praise in Expectancy theory.

The last factor which moderately affects the motivations of the respondents is the image of the company. This is considered as a combination of different motivators in 5 motivational theories. It is motivating for the employees to be connected in company, like Apple that is considered as big and popular, thus it follow that the financial and other benefits in the organization is also big, the working environment is good, there is a high opportunity for individual and personal growth, therefore, the company can offer them sense of security and safety in terms of their and their respective families needs, and their position and status in the organization.

            These result showed that Apple Inc. employees are moderately being affected by motivating factors that are related with the relationship with the company, relationship with others and relationship with one’s self.

            The result showed that there are 5 factors which do not affect the motivation towards work of the respondents. These 5 includes: interest (mean = 2.62), commercial outlook (mean = 2.62), personal principles (mean = 2.64), level of activity (mean = 2.75) and achievement (mean = 2.76). The result is somewhat different from the literatures of the past, because these factors are connected with the relationship of the employees towards their work, their working environment and their own perceptions. Interest pertains on the jobs which offer variety, interest and stimulation. This is very important because, most likely, a job which gives repetitive process, there is a big possibility for the employee to be bored, whereas if a work or task offers new every now and then, employees will see it as stimulating and interesting. Commercial outlook pertains on the commercial performance of the entire organization, which include the sales, profit and market share. This is very important because Apple Inc. is considered as one of the most popular brand and most loved by the market; therefore, commercial performance is always positive. However, the employees see no effect of these factors towards their motivation. Personal principles pertain on the different ethical standards. Level of activity pertains on the needs to be busy, enjoy multitasking and cope with the time pressure. The result showed that this is not an important motivating factor towards the employees, maybe because some of the respondents see it as de-motivating factor. It is surprising that the least motivating factor for the respondents is the achievement, which pertains on the process of overcoming challenges, hitting targets and being stretch as individual. However, it is surprising to see achievement as one of the motivators which do not affect the respondents. This is because, achievement is included as one of the most important factors in different motivational factors such as Expectancy theory, Hygiene theory, Achievement theory and Hierarchy of Needs theory.

           

3.1  Attitudes of Employees Towards Work 

Table  SEQ Table \* ARABIC 6 Indicators of Motivation in Apple Inc.

 

Rank

Indicator

Mean

Interpretation

1

Confident to be successful

1.09

very often

2

Work hard to complete work

1.27

very often

3

Privilege to be part of the organization

1.47

very often

4

Proud to be part of the organization

1.47

very often

5

Sense of belongingness

1.47

very often

6

Loyal to the company

1.72

often

7

Identify alternative solution

1.75

often

8

Help co-workers

1.76

often

9

Exert full effort

1.78

often

10

Ability to cope with change

1.78

often

11

Excited to work and energetic

1.87

often

12

High confidence over the decision of the management

1.89

often

13

Recommend the company as good working environment to others

1.93

often

14

Do the job well with high quality

1.94

often

15

Highly initiatively

2.16

often

 

           

Table 6 shows the different indicators of motivation or the attitudes of the employees towards work. In order to measure these, the author of the study asked the respondents to rate how often they practice or feel the statements – based on the different theories and principles of indicators of motivation. The result showed that all of the indicators show high rate ranging from very often to often, which shows that the employees are highly motivated to work.

            The result shows that the top 5 and the most frequent attitudes of the respondents are: confident to be successful (mean = 1.09), work hard to complete work (mean = 1.27), privilege to be part of the organization (mean = 1.47), proud to be part of the organization (mean = 1.47) and sense of belongingness (mean = 1.47).

            Confident employees are motivated employees (Bruce & Pepitone 1998, p.115). This is because what ever an individual felt confident about, he or she will be able to perform it with greater ease and overall success. Thus, confidence is considered as one of the most vital aspects of motivation. This is important because confidence will be helpful in order for the employees to cope with the different strains and further frees up their capacity to accept increasingly challenging situations which will help to support learning and positive personality change (Kanfer & Chen 2008). The result also showed that employees are trying very hard in order to complete their work, thus they exert efforts in order to finish their work on time, as a result, the employees are more productive, which will help in order to improve the performance of the entire company. Another sign of motivated employees is the feeling of gratitude or being privileged to be part of the organization or part of the team. Thus, it shows that the needs of the employees are being catered by the organization. In connection, the respondents also very proud to be part of Apple Inc., this is important because passion is considered as one of the key element of personal motivation (Messmer 2001). When an employee is proud of his or her company, then it shows that the company had been able to treat its employees in fair and effective manner. The next indicator is also connected to the feeling of privileged and pride, the respondents showed that they felt that they belong to the company. Therefore, it shows that the policies, standards and regulations, together with the different actions, strategies and performances being implemented inside the organizations matched their individual preferences, demands and needs. This sense of belongingness or being comfortable will stimulate the employee’s motivation.

            The remaining 10 indicators are considered as frequent attitude of the respondents: loyal to the company (mean = 1.72), identify alternative solution (mean = 1.75), help co-workers (mean = 1.76), exert full effort (mean = 1.78), ability to cope with change (mean = 1.78), excited to work and energetic (mean = 1.87), high confidence over the decision of the management (mean = 1.89), recommend the company as good working environment to other (mean = 1.93), do the job well with high quality (mean = 1.94) and highly initiative (mean = 2.16).

            This means that employees of Apple Inc are loyal to the company, thus they foresee that they will stay in the company and in the service for a long time. Thus, it can help in order to retain employees, thus help to save cost, at the same time maintain good performance. Employees also enable to identify different solutions when problems inside the organization arise. This is because, loyalty and trust, enables the employees to create strong relationship with the company. In connection, the result also showed that the respondents help other employees inside the company. Thus, employees are working initiatively.

Another important sign or indicator of motivation is the level or degree of effort that employees are exerting in their respective task or work. Based on the result, it shows that the respondents are exerting high level of effort in order to do their job in effective and efficient manner. The result also showed that the employees are energetic and excited to work. All of these enables the employee to do their job in high quality based on the standard of the company

Change is considered as inevitable, this is because of the different changes and development which can be experienced by any company or organization due to its micro- and macro-environment. In order to cope with these changes and challenges, it is important for the internal structure to implement different change strategies and movements. In connection, change always signifies challenge towards human resource, particularly regarding the refusal of the employees to a specific change. However, if the employees are highly motivated, this will not be a problem, because, highly motivated employees are willing to cope with any change, as long as it can help them to be more productive and to be more useful for the organization. In connection, those highly motivated employees also have trust and confidence about any decision or strategic movement by the higher management.

            Therefore, based on all of these factors, employees tend to recommend Apple Inc. as a company with good working environment.

 

3.2  Summary of Analysis

The result showed that the employees are greatly motivated by both financial and non-financial motivators. Thus, it enables to show that the primary incentive or motivating factor is money or material things. However, it must be supported by different non-financial motivators which include the qualities of the working environment, the quality of the leaders and the characteristics and quality of the rules and regulations being implemented in the organization. Therefore, it is important to ensure that Apple Inc. must maintain and improve its motivational strategies focusing on both financial and non-financial aspects in order to push and drive motivation from the employees.

On the other hand, the result showed that the motivational strategies implemented in the company are effective, because of the positive and high rate of motivation indicators, which include the quality and quantity of their work, relationship with the company, the co-workers and bosses and their intrapersonal relationships.

 

4.0  Conclusion

4.1 Meeting of Research Objectives

4.1.1 Motivational Theories at Work

            There are different motivational theories introduced in the literature in the past. Each tackles and introduces different additional elements on how individual produce the drive or the stimulus to do a specific task in high level of effort, which consequently result to productivity and efficiency. These theories enable to give hints or ideas regarding the different factors that must be considered in human resource aspects in any organization or company. Particularly, motivation helps to enable the employees to love their company and the brand, which will consequently affect how the customers perceptions about the company or brand (Drake & Gulman 2005). This study reviewed and described 5 important and primary motivational theories applied at work. This includes the Carrot and Stick theory by Taylor, Hierarchy of Needs theory by Maslow, Achievement theory by McClelland, Hygiene theory by Herberg, Theory X and Theory Y by McGregor and Expectancy theory by Vroom. The motivating factors and motivator indicators used in the data gathering process of this paper were all based on these theories.

            It is important for any company to focus on the different motivational factors or motivators which affect the employees. This is because of the fact that, these factors have direct influence towards the performance of the employees, in terms of their perception about the company and the employer. These motivational factors must be considered in planning, designing and implementing any actions, strategies and programs inside the organization, in order to ensure that the employees will cooperate and work together with the higher management. With this, managers have a significant role in ensuring that all of the employees are motivated.

 

4.1.2 Ranking of Motivations in Apple Inc. Working Environment

            The result of the study showed 15 different motivating factors. Out of 15 factors, 2 factors highly increase motivation, 8 factors moderately increase motivation and 5 factors do not effect motivation. The two primary factors are financial reward and personal growth. These two are followed by ease and security, progression, authority and power, internal competition, autonomy recognition, good image of the organization and affiliation. While those factors that do not affect the attitude of the employees are interest, commercial outlook, personal principles, level of activity and achievement.

            This shows that for the employees, combination of financial and non-financial motivation is important. According to Armstrong (2002, p. 11), it is important to always reinforce money with non-financial motivations and recognition schemes. This is because; non-financial motivations can help in order to make the influence of the reward or appraisal system to be more longer-lasting.

            Particularly, the result shows the initial reaction of the employees in terms of motivation. Commonly, the first factor which gets the interest and enthusiasm of the employees towards a company is the compensation package. This is because the primary reason of employees in searching for work is to support their financial needs, in order to survive. After these, the next factors that employees will consider is their emotional and intellectual needs, particularly how the current policies and regulations inside the company can help them to grow in terms of their skills and knowledge. This include aspects that are related on how the company enables the employees to work on their own, provide trainings and seminars which will introduce new skills and information and open opportunities for advancement in the company.

 

4.1.3 Indicators of Motivation of Employees in Apple

            The result of the study, based on the self-assessment of the respondents in Apple Inc., showed that the employees are highly motivated. This is based on the different motivational indicators used and presented in the study. This particularly reflect on the level of their positivity in rating how they feel about their work and their position in the company, as well as how they perceive the different activities, programs and changes being implemented inside the company.

            Particularly, the employees show high confidence level, which reflect on how they perceive success in doing their jobs inside the company. This pertains on the quality of the outcome and the time and other resources used in order to create that outcome. As a result, employees are all comfortable in working with the company, which consequently lead them to be more confident about their position in the company and become loyal. This pertains on their concerns about solving problems inside the company, cooperating and working with the co-worker, high level of energy, confidence as well as their openness for any change to be implemented in the company. This shows that the employees trust the Apple Inc. management in its decisions. Above all, the employees are proud to be part of the team.

 

4.2  Limitations

There are two limitations that need to be acknowledged and addressed about the present study. First is the limitation of the sample population. The number of the population used was 55 employees; therefore, it does not represent the entire population of the company. This is primarily because of constraints in time and cost. Therefore, the result of the study might not reflect the entire perceptions and notions of the employees in Apple Inc.

The second limitation is the data gathering method used. The author, due to time and cost constraints used survey questionnaire in order to gather data for this study. Therefore, this study focuses on the personal report of the employees about their attitudes and performance – personal report can be affected by bias and personal exaggeration. These two limitations greatly affect the results or outcomes of the study.

 

4.3  Final Words

Based on the results and limitations of this study, there are suggestions for future enhancements in order to present more reliable and efficient research. First, it is important to focus on gathering data from larger population; this will help in order to analyze data which will represent the entire population of a given organization. On the other hand, it is also important to implement both qualitative and quantitative research methods: thus, survey questionnaire and survey interviews must be implemented, in order to gather more detailed information. It can also help, if observation can be implemented, in order to gather real-time information from the observers’ perspectives.

 

5.0  References

 

Adair J E 2004, The Concise Adair on Teambuilding and Motivation, (N Tomas ed.), Thorogood, London.

 

Agrawal, P K 1995, Motivation and Indian Bureaucracy, M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd.

 

Armstrong, M 2002, Employee Reward, CIPD Publishing.

 

Baldoni, J 2005, Great Motivation Secrets of Great Leaders, Volume 2004, McGraw-Hill Professional.

 

Bruce, A & Pepitone, J 1998, Motivating Employees, McGraw-Hill Professional.

 

Chen, G & Bliese, P D 2002, ‘The Role of Different Levels of Leadership in Predicting Self- and Collective Efficacy: Evidence for Discontinuity’, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 87, no. 3, pp. 549 – 556.

 

Commonwealth of Learning 2000, Manual for Educational Media    Researchers: Knowing your Audience, Commonwealth Educational Media Centre for Asia (CEMCA), Vancouver, Canada.

 

Creswell, J W 1994, Research design. Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Sage, Thousand Oaks, California.

 

Drake, S, Gulman, M & Roberts, S 2005, Light Their Fire: Using Internal Marketing to Ignite Employee Performance and Wow Your Customer, Kaplan Publishing.

 

DuBrin, A 2008, Essentials of Management, Cengage Learning.

 

Funding Universe, Apple Inc. http://www.fundinguniverse.com/company-histories/Apple-Computer-Inc-Company-History.html (Accessed April 19, 2010).

 

Kanfer, R, Chen, G & Pritchard, R 2008, Work Motivation: Past, Present and Future, CRC Press.

 

Kumar, A & Sharma, R 2001, Personnel Management Theory and Practice, Atlantic Publishers & Distri.

 

Latham, G 2007, Work Motivation: History, Theory, Research and Practice, SAGE.

 

Lee-Ross, D 2002, ‘An Exploratory Study of Work Motivation Among Private and Public Sector Hospital Chefs in Australia’, Journal of Management Development, vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 576 – 588.

 

Malhotra, V K & Qureshi, M U, Management Principal & Practice, Anmol Publications PVT.

 

Messmer, M 2001, Motivating Employees for Dummies, Wiley.

 

Mitchell, T R & Daniels, D 2003, ‘Chapter 10: Motivation’ In W C Borman, D R Ilgen & R J Klimoski, Handbook of Psychology, Volume 12: Industrial and Organizational Psychology, pp. 225 – 254, John Wiley, Hoboken, NJ.

 

Pergamon Flexible Learning 2005, Managing for Results, Elsevier.

 

Pride, W, Hughes, R & Kapoor, J 2009, Business, Cengage Learning.

 

Rosen, E D 1993, Improving Public Sector Productivity: Concepts and Practice, SAGE.

 

Saunders, M, Lewis, P & Thornhill, A 2003 Research Methods for Business Students, 3rd Ed, Prentice Hall Financial Times, London.

 

Sims, R 2002, Managing Organizational Behavior, Quorom Books, Westport CT.

 

Underwood, M 2004, The Likert Scale. In Communication Studies, Cultural Studies, Media Studies (CMMS) Infobase. Available at: [www.cultsock.ndirect.co.uk/MUHome/cshtml/index.html]. Accessed: [04/22/10].

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6.0  Appendices

 

Appendix A: Maslow Theory of Needs

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix B: Survey Questionnaire

 

Direction: Please tick the box which corresponds to your answer. Kindly answer the questions as honest as possible, because your answer can affect the result of our study. Please be informed that all of the information you provided will be solely used for educational purpose only.

 

Part I: Socio-Economic Background

 

1. Gender

∏ Male

∏ Female

 

2. Age

∏ 8 – 25

∏ 26 – 33

∏ 34 – 41

∏ 42 – above

 

3. Years of stay in the company

∏ below one year

∏1 – 2 years

∏ 3 – 5 years

∏ 6 – 10 years

∏ 11 – above years

 

Part II: Motivations of Employees

 

A. Motivators at Work

 

5 – greatly reduces my motivation to work

4 – tends to reduce my motivation to work

3 – has no effect on my motivation to work

2 – tends to increase my motivation to work

1 – greatly increases my motivation to work

 

Based on the degree shown above, rate the following statement on its impact on your motivation to work:

 

__1. The company and my work gives me the opportunity to organization my own approach to work (opportunities to work independently and use initiative)

 

__2. The company and my work enable me by overcoming challenges, hitting targets and being stretched as an individual

 

__3. The successful commercial performance of the company including increase in sales, reduction in the cost and profitability.

 

__4.The company and my work enable me to uphold ideas, at the same time conform to high ethical and quality standards.

 

__5 The company and my work enables me to exercise my authority, take responsibility, negotiate and be in the position that can influence others.

 

__6. The company and my work enable me to have the opportunities to undergo further training and development, and acquire new skills and capabilities.

 

__7. The company and my work enable me to interact with other people.

 

__8. The company and my work offer opportunities for promotion.

 

__9. Competition inside the company enables me to be benchmarked and compared with others in favorable manner.

 

__10. Praise, positive feedback and other outward signs of recognition for achievements.

 

__11. The company and my job offer me the variety, interest and stimulation.

 

__12. My position and work enable me to enjoy multitasking and have to cope with time pressure.

 

__13. I am secure about my job and position in the company, as well as contextual factors including the good condition of working environment.

 

__14. Financial reward, salary and benefits.

 

__15. My pride about the organization I belong.

 

B. Indicators of Motivations of Employees

 

5 – very rarely

4 – rarely

3 – sometimes

2 – often

1 – very often

 

Based on the degree above, rate the following statement, based on your feelings and experiences at work:

 

__1. I feel privileged to work for my organization

 

__2. I assist my leader with their work without having being prompted

 

__3. I help co-workers who have problems with their job.

 

__4. I have absolute confidence on the decision of the higher management.

 

__5. I find my work exciting and I feel energized when I am working.

 

__6. I carry out the core of my job well.

 

__7. I work hard as I can in order to complete my work and meet the deadlines.

 

__8. I feel like continuing to work in my company for foreseeable future.

 

__9. I feel a strong sense of belongingness to my company.

 

__10. I speak highly of my company to friends and family.

 

__11. I identify different alternative solutions to issues and problems inside the company.

 

__12. I cope with changes to the way I have in order to do my job, meet the goals and objectives of the company.

 

__13. I would recommend this company to others as a great place to work.

 

__14. I put my full effort into my job and make sure that I completed my task properly.

 

__15. I am confident I can succeed.

 

 

Thank you very much

And

Good luck!

 

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