Leadership Model: Emotional Intelligence
We help with your
Leadership Model: Emotional Intelligence
Statement of theory/model to be analyzed and reason for selection
The chosen leadership model for this paper is, ‘Emotional intelligence (EI)’ upon presenting literature organization on how EI works effectively within the nursing practice. Literature review that deal with emotional intelligence and nursing base. The theory pointing to research of EI in nursing serves a strong phenomenon by understanding of direction as well as nature of the EI theory, crucial in building appropriate knowledge put in nursing inquiry. The focus on EI and nursing practices as well as leadership, having connected core of EI and nursing care application.
EI model is selected as wider range use of literature studies pertaining the latter is evident and that search parameters are currently noted in search databases and publications and that recent information to EI in relation to nursing practice has been observed spontaneously by several authors and proponents who were experts in the field of emotional intelligence. They can be well acquainted with nursing care and standards adhering to support of EI theory or concepts in nursing. Thus, recognizing that EI theory plays a central function to the overall practice in nursing, EI has been explicit to the presence of nursing education as EI imparts learning, ethical decisions as well as critical evidence and rational information used in nursing. For instance, the emotionally intelligent nurses influence performance, quality of care in patients and providing of desirable patient outcomes (Prati, Douglas, Ferris, Ammeter, Buckley, 2003).
EI research in nursing field will require development and careful consideration of EI as an indicator of leadership success in nursing and its related aspects. Furthermore, effective leadership has been an elusive key to health care success yet, one of the imperative ingredient that create any nursing related function and work. EI in its assumption for nursing leadership will change through time, for flexible attitude and stable emotional elements that account for dynamic EI presence among nurses and other health care providers upon allowing trust and empowerment of the nursing profession on emotional intelligence and its link to leadership competence (Mayer and Salovey, 1997).
Description and analysis of related literature (including research literature)
EI model first being introduced by proponents, Salovey and Mayer (1990), being a type of social intelligence, which are separable from general intelligence, EI then integrate an ability to monitor emotions, to discriminate as well as utilizing information in order to guide positive thinking and action. Furthermore, Salovey and Mayer (1997, p. 7) did define EI as the ability of the individual to perceive as well as appraise, and express emotion, EI has the ability to access or generate feelings when thought and presented. Accounts to the skills and knowledge to understand and be aware of individual’s emotional knowledge; along with EI theory’s aptitude to regulate sentiments and be able to promote intellectual stability and growth stature (Mayer and Salovey, 1997). Furthermore, Goleman (1998, 317) have noted EI model as one capacity for recognizing one’s feelings and of others, for motivating oneself and for managing of emotion and relationship.
EI theory implies performance, EI serve direct applicability of work domain for example, nursing care ways and health care effectiveness, bringing excellence into nursing profession and other kind of job such as transferring of operative ward ideas into intensive care unit ideas (Goleman, 1998). Bar-On (2001) asserted that EI model assume certain non-cognitive capability as well as competence and skill helping the person be efficient in working well despite working demands and role pressures, as specific skills contributing nursing leadership success. There was increasing interest in theoretical development of EI model as there notion and tenets to identify such variance as duly accounted for nurses intelligence as well as personality traits (Fox and Spector, 2000; Van der Zee et al., 2000) from within human centered transaction like nursing care success and leadership base (Bar-On, 2001) as well as patient care satisfaction and the process of well being provided by nurses in keeping close encounter of EI theory for nursing as noted by Dulewicz et al., 2003; Palmer et al., 2002) from within nurses mental/physical health status and how the level of EI permits an award winning usability of interpersonal nursing relationship (Ciarrochi et al., 2002; Taylor, 2001; Flury and Ickes, 2001; Fitness, 2001).
Dulewicz and Higgs (2000) have indicated that certain literature on EI can be drawn into psychology based research while limiting nursing leadership application of EI model towards certain derivative ideas. However, nursing oriented research have started to be in focus and that nursing tenets do concentrate as to how EI model forecast nurse behaviors along with leadership potential as well as career development, health care effectiveness, and stress and nursing performances and nursing job insecurity (Jordan et al., 2002; Higgs and Rowland, 2002; Prati et al., 2003) of high EI and coping strategies than those having low EI ratios (Slaski and Cartwright, 2002). The nursing interests found in EI can be associated with nursing context instability and change that can be connected with emotional conflict (Downing, 1997) and the evidence nursing tenets upon focusing on EI can contribute to health care advantage, nurses and leaders are to recognize emotion roles and the way health care heads handle these nurses within effective nursing environment.
Huy (1999) indicated that, “degree of organization ability to execute effectively emotional dynamics determine the level of emotional capability and the likelihood of realizing radical change, EI dynamics mirror the behavior of the emotional intelligent individual” (p. 332), which can comprise of nurses and nurse leaders. Indeed, individual difference construction of EI theory was potential factor in contributing understanding of affective implication of nursing care policy that takes place in health care settings. Nurses with low control of emotion are expected to react negatively toward changes, being not equipped to deal with demands and consequences of stressful procedure. Nurses having the ability to make use of emotions appropriately, being optimistic and take initiatives ideally decide to reframe good perceptions of certain change program and have it as a challenge on their part (Judge et al., 1999; Wanberg and Banas, 2000).
There accounts to nurses ability to manage several emotions in the workplace, with better attributes of personality as the EI model will facilitate health care change upon exploration of certain imperative constructs and attitudes toward the profession and job role. There require EI model upon recognizing of factors affecting caring behaviors and body of knowledge linking caring with emotional intelligence. In the EI model, nurses’ perceptions of patients tend to be more accurate, the quality of the psychological closeness tends to be enhanced, and a mutually acceptable level of intimacy and emotional involvement are more likely to be achieved (McQueen, 2000). EI model can assume ability to manage emotions can lead nurses to be more respectful, attentive and trustful towards patients, and to provide them with more explanations regarding treatments and their respective consequences.
Discussion of how concepts may be used in the chosen advanced nursing role to effect change and enhance practice. Quality of content and concepts discussed
EI concepts may be used in choosing of advanced nursing role to effect change and enhance practice as there demonstrate that emotional intelligence mark out nurses as leaders and effective providers. The role of nurse is evolving continually and skills involve qualities demanded by health care system. EI integrate the ability to work effectively in care teams, ability to respond appropriately to feelings, ability to motivate other nurses and staff. The EI concept can assimilate effective selection process of nurses’ work, determine level of emotional intelligence in prospective nurses and be a predictor of success such as into clinical nursing practices and academic research (Cadman and Brewer, 2001; McQueen, 2004). Nurses’ emotional intelligence cues cannot be developed in a short time through interpersonal skills training, and so it will be essential that nurse educators have to create assessment strategies that will strengthen emotional intelligence of nursing staffs positively (Cadman and Brewer, 2001; McQueen, 2004).
EI model is accepted in literature for nursing work but, the contribution of EI into nursing context requires comprehensive research. Indeed, emotional intelligence plays a vital element in forming successful nursing care relationships, integral in establishing therapeutic nurse to patient relationship but carry risks if being protracted or concentrated, nurses need to adopt EI effectively to protect themselves as modern demand of nursing draw skills of EI concept in order to meet the needs of patient care and cooperative negotiation with health care and multidisciplinary team. EI have the benefits of gaining an ideal understanding of how EI concepts interact in speculation of EI evidence, EI have the advantage on both nurses and patients upon motivating several researchers in the long run (Cadman and Brewer, 2001; McQueen, 2004).
There suggests that EI theory is relevant for effective leadership in nursing for an achievable service performance, health and well-being of patients and other aspects to care (Van Roy and Viswesvaran, 2004). EI is making appearance in nursing journals (McQueen, 2004; Cadman and Brewer, 2001; Freshwater and Stickley, 2004). EI in nursing is crucial for nourishing and sustaining emotional labor nurses are required to carry out in their interactions with patients, Freshwater and Stickley (2004, p. 93), “every nursing is affected by aptitude of emotional intelligence, not enough to attend merely to the practical procedure without considering the human recipient of the process”. Thus, EI can help improve patients’ well-being through care received, have positive consequence on nurses EI, and help nurses to cope with stress of clinical nursing practice (Cadman and Brewer, 2001), placing competence of nursing practitioners upon dealing with own emotion as well as others, considering that nursing is mainly relational in nature and impregnated with intense emotional meaning and labor (Cadman and Brewer, 2001; McQueen, 2004).
Nurses need to interpret and understand how patients feel, to ascertain their motives and concerns, and demonstrate empathy in their care (McQueen, 2004) as well as understand and manage own emotions, not just for high quality care, but for self protection and health. Indeed, nurses with higher EI display strong self-awareness and high levels of interpersonal skills; they are empathetic and adaptable; are more likely to ‘connect’ easily with patients and to meet their emotional needs immediately; they are able to see the patients’ perspectives and thus are more apt to understand and satisfy one’s needs (Kerfoot, 1996). In addition, nurses reveal sensible manner when they interact with patients and are likely to behave and communicate in proper quorum. When nurses recognize their feelings, they are more likely to manage them as such, nurses may exercise self constraint against negative emotion nurses are experiencing.
However, if nurses do not understand that they are frustrated, irritated on patient situation, nurses are less to control the expression of emotions having negative effects on the patients (McQueen, 2004). In short, nurses are well being advised to keep some emotions in check and balance and the emotional consciousness component of EI model will provide nurses the needful ability (Rozell, Pettijohn and Parker, 2006). The understanding of nurses’ emotions is more conducive to caring behaviors, not all EI model lead automatically to more caring behaviors. It depends on how different aspects of the nurses’ EI profiles combine. Thus, it is interesting to measure EI through other methods (Mayer, Caruso and Salovey, 2000; Lee-Hsieh, Kuo, Tseng and Turton, 2005).
Nurses with elevated EI might avoid giving some explanations to patients who experience a strong psychological distress, psychologically deny their own situation and/or verbally attack them, it is likely that emotionally intelligent nurses adapt behaviors to different circumstances (Bellack, 1999; Cadman and Brewer, 2001; Freshwater and Stickley, 2004). Efforts can be made to improve nurses’ EI and to stimulate them to adopt more appropriate caring behaviors. Nurses’ supervisors can reward and positively reinforce these behaviors (Bardzil and Slaski, 2003). EI model is not the panacea for fostering nurses’ caring behaviors, explain significant but low unique variance of caring behaviors, and complex combinations between EI model appear to be required for nurses becoming good caregivers (Vitello-Cicciu, 2002), caution need to be linked among EI and nursing care success.
Bardzil, P. & Slaski, M. 2003. Emotional intelligence: Fundamental competencies of enhanced service provision. Managing Service Quality, 13(2), 97-104.
Bar-On, R. (2001), "Emotional intelligence and self-actualization", in Ciarrochi, J., Forgas, J.P., Mayer, J.D. (Eds),Emotional Intelligence in Every Day Life: A Scientific Inquiry, Psychology Press, Philadelphia, PA, pp.82-97.
Cadman, C. & Brewer, J. 2001. Emotional Intelligence: A vital prerequisite for recruitment in nursing. Journal of Nursing Management, 9, 321-324.
Caruso, D.R., Mayer, J.D. & Salovey, P. 2002. Emotional intelligence and emotional leadership. In R. E. Riggio & S. Murphy (Eds), Multiple intelligences and leadership: 55-74. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Dulewicz, V., Higgs, M., & Slaski, M. 2003. Measuring emotional intelligence: Content, construct and criterion-related validity. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18(5), 405-420.
Fitness, J. (2001), "Emotional intelligence and intimate relationships", in Ciarrochi, J., Forgas, J.P., Mayer, J.D. (Eds),Emotional Intelligence in Every Day Life: A Scientific Inquiry, Psychology Press, Philadelphia, PA, pp.98-112.
Flury, J., Ickes, W. (2001), "Emotional intelligence and empathetic accuracy", in Ciarrochi, J., Forgas, J.P., Mayer, J.D. (Eds),Emotional Intelligence in Every Day Life: A Scientific Inquiry, Psychology Press, Philadelphia, PA, pp.113-32.
Freshwater, D. & Stickley, T. 2004. The heart of the art: Emotional intelligence in nurse education. Nursing Inquiry, 11(2), 91-98.
Goleman, D. 1998. Working with emotional intelligence. London: Bloomsbury.
Higgs, M., Rowland, D. (2002), "Does it need emotional intelligence to lead change?", Journal of General Management, Vol. 27 pp.62-76.
Huy, Q.N. (1999), "Emotional capability, emotional intelligence, and radical change", Academy of Management Review, Vol. 24 pp.325-45
Jordan, P.J., Ashkanasy, N.M., Hartel, C.E. (2002), "Emotional intelligence as a moderator of emotional and behavioral reactions to job insecurity", Academy of Management Review, Vol. 27 pp.361-72.
Kerfoot, K. 1996. The emotional side of leadership: The nurse manager’s challenge. Nursing Economics, 14(1), 59–62.
Lee-Hsieh J., Kuo, C.L., Tseng, H.F. & Turton, M.A. 2005. Development of an instrument to measure caring behaviors in nursing students in Taiwan. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 42(5), 579-588.
Mayer, J.D., Salovey, P. (1997), "What is emotional intelligence?", in Salovey, P., Sluyter, D. (Eds),Emotional Development and Emotional Intelligence: Educational Implications for Educators, Basic Books, New York, NY, pp.3-31.
Mayer, J., Salovey, P. & Caruso, D. 2000. Models of emotional intelligence. In R. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of intelligence, 396-420. New York: Cambridge.
McQueen A. C. H. 2000. Nurse-patient relationships and partnership in hospital care. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 9, 723-731.
McQueen, A. C. H. 2004. Emotional intelligence in nursing work. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 47(1), 101–108.
Meyer, D., Cecka, R. L. & Turkovich, C. 2006. The journey: A design to develop the art of caring. Advanced Emergency Nursing Journal, 28(3), 258-264.
Palmer, B., Walls, M., Burgess, Z., Stough, C. (2000), "Emotional intelligence and effective leadership", Leadership and Organization Development Journal, Vol. 22 pp.5-11.
Palmer, B., Donaldson, C., Stough, C. (2002), "Emotional intelligence and life satisfaction", Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 33 pp.1091-100
Prati, L.M., Douglas, C., Ferris, G.R., Ammeter, A.P., Buckley, M.R. (2003), "Emotional intelligence, leadership effectiveness, and team outcomes", The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, Vol. 11 pp.21-40.
Rozell, E.J., Pettijohn, C.E., & Parker, R.S. 2006. Emotional intelligence and dispositional affectivity as predictors of performance in salespeople. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 14(2), 113-124.
Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. 1990. Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9(3), 185-211.
Salovey, P., Mayer, J., & Caruso, D. 2002. The positive psychology of emotional intelligence. In C. Snyder & S. Lopez (Eds.), The handbook of positive psychology: 159-171. New York: Oxford University Press.
Slaski, M. & Cartwright, S. 2003. Emotional intelligence training and its implications for stress, health and performance. Stress and Health, 19(4), 233-239.
Slaski, M., Cartwright, S. (2002), "Health, performance and emotional intelligence: an exploratory study of retail managers", Stress and Health, Vol. 18 pp.63-8.
Taylor, G.J. (2001), "Low emotional intelligence and mental health", in Ciarrochi, J., Forgas, J.P., Mayer, J.D. (Eds),Low Emotional Intelligence and Mental Health, Psychology Press, Philadelphia, PA, pp.67-81.
Van der Zee, K., Thijs, M., Schakel, L. (2002), "The relationship of emotional intelligence with academic intelligence and the big five", European Journal of Personality, Vol. 16 pp.103-25
Van Rooy, D. L. & Viswesvaran, C. 2004. Emotional intelligence: A meta-analytic investigation of predictive validity and nomological net. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65(1), 71–95.
Vitello-Cicciu, J. M. 2002. Exploring emotional intelligence: Implications for nursing leaders. Journal of Nursing Administration, 32(4), 203-210
Wanberg, C.R., Banas, J.T. (2000), "Predictors and outcomes of openness to changes in a reorganizing workplace", Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 85 pp.132-42.