Do you have a website? I earned more than US$200 on my first month alone. Just copy the code and paste in your website. It earns and I mean it.

Online Users









This chapter discussed the research methods available for the study and the applicability of it to use. Likewise, the chapter presented how the research will be implemented and how to come up with pertinent findings.


Method of Research to be Used

The descriptive research method uses observation and surveys. In this method, it is possible that the study would be cheap and quick. It could also suggest unanticipated hypotheses. Nonetheless, it would be very hard to rule out alternative explanations and especially infer causations. Thus, this study used the descriptive approach. This descriptive type of research utilized observations in the study.  To illustrate the descriptive type of research, Creswell (1994) guided the researcher when he stated: Descriptive method of research is to gather information about the present existing condition.  The purpose of employing this method is to describe the nature of a situation, as it exists at the time of the study and to explore the cause/s of particular phenomena. The researcher opted to use this kind of research considering the desire of the researcher to obtain first hand data from the respondents so as to formulate rational and sound conclusions and recommendations for the study.

The research described in this document is based fundamentally on qualitative and quantities research methods. This permits a flexible and iterative approach. During data gathering the choice and design of methods are constantly modified, based on ongoing analysis. This allows investigation of important new issues and questions as they arise, and allows the investigators to drop unproductive areas of research from the original research plan.

Qualitative models are more able than traditional models to express states of incomplete knowledge about continuous mechanisms (Benjamin, 1994). Qualitative simulation guarantees to find all possible behaviors consistent with the knowledge in the model. This expressive power and coverage are important in problem solving for diagnosis, design, monitoring, and explanation.

Qualitative evaluation data usually refers to raw, descriptive information about: programs/products and the people who participate in/use them or are affected by them and; programs/products and the people who develop or use them (Paton, 1987). Three data gathering strategies typically characterize qualitative methodology: in-depth, open-ended interviews; direct observation; and written documents (including program records, personal diaries, logs, etc.).

Paton (1987) illustrated the three data gathering strategies of qualitative data as: data from interviews, observations and document reviews are organized into major themes, categories, and case examples. The most common strategy for analyzing qualitative data is constant-comparison, but there are many other techniques from which to choose.

There are a variety of ways to report the results of qualitative research/evaluation; common among them is the sense of story – which includes: attention to detail, descriptive vocabulary, direct quotes from those observed or interviewed, and thematic organization.

Qualitative methods permit the evaluator to study selected issues, cases, or events in depth and detail. Data collection is not constrained by predetermined categories of analysis, allowing for a level of depth and detail that quantitative strategies can't provide.

Qualitative methods are particularly well-suited to exploration, discovery and inductive logic. An evaluation approach is inductive to the extent that the evaluator attempts to make sense of the situation without imposing pre-existing expectations on the setting. Inductive designs begin with specific observations and build toward general patterns.

Fieldwork is the central activity of qualitative data gathering. To be in the field means to have direct, personal contact with people in their own environments. It is the researcher's desire to contextualize program or product implementation that allows him/her to capture important "results" (effects, outcomes) that standardized measures cannot.

Quantitative approaches allow for large-scale measurement of ideas, beliefs, and attitudes. But generally, the set of questions is limited -- facilitating comparison and statistical aggregation of the data. This allows for development of a generalizable set of findings. By contrast, qualitative methods typically produce a wealth of detailed data about a defined number of people and cases – data that need not fit into predetermined response choices that characterize most surveys, questionnaires, or tests.

The main advantages of quantitative research include its objectivity. Unlike many qualitative researchers, quantitative researchers try to keep a 'distance' from their subjects. They use subjects unknown to them and they make no attempt to get to know their subjects other than to collect the required data from them.

Quantitative research methods, if explained in detail are generally very easy to replicate and hence have a high reliability. The results of quantitative research tend to be very simple in that they are generally reduced to a few numerical statistics and interpreted in a few short statements.

A mix of qualitative and quantitative data gathering enriches evaluation; the open-ended comments provide a way to elaborate and contextualize statistical "facts."

            This research seeks to investigate "The effects of an after-school academic intervention program on English Language Arts test scores for eight grade  African America males". This study illustrated the growth of program development/improvement in school industry. Furthermore, this study proposed an alternative plan in developing and implementing programs in school sector. Consequently, the strategy of providing effective program in school was evaluated.

The primary source of data came from a survey questionnaire and interviews that is conducted personally by the researcher. A survey questionnaire was given to the students, teachers, school administrators and other personalities related to school progress. The researcher integrated and discards replies that came from people outside US and those who are not related in school industry.

The secondary sources of data came from published articles in school development and information technology journals, articles, and books relating to the school stability with respect to the effects of an after-school academic intervention program on English Language Arts test scores for eight grade African America males. This served as the basis of the researchers’ assumptions and comparative data on the result of the survey and the interviews.

For this research design, the researcher gathered data, collate published studies from different local and foreign universities and articles from social science journals; and make a content analysis of the collected documentary and verbal material.  Afterwards, the researcher summarized all the information, make a conclusion based on the null hypotheses posited and provide insightful recommendations on the dealing with the development and implementation of programs in marine school industry of US. 

Respondents of the Study

The general population for this study are composed of US residents who are also related to school industry such as students, teachers, school administrators and other resource person related to school industry. The researcher used at survey and has the discretion to discard the responses that may be received. The total number of respondents is the first 60 who fitted the two criteria mentioned above. 

Instruments to be Used

To determine the effects of an after-school academic intervention program on English Language Arts test scores for eight grade African America males, the researcher prepared a questionnaire and a set of guide questions for the interview that is asked to the intended respondents. The respondents graded each statement in the survey-questionnaire using a Likert scale with a five-response scale wherein respondents are given five response choices. The equivalent weights for the answers are:


Range                                                 Interpretation

            4.50 – 5.00                                                      Strongly Agree

3.50 – 4.00                                                      Agree

2.50 – 3.49                                                      Uncertain

1.50 – 2.49                                                      Disagree           

0.00 – 1.49                                                      Strongly Disagree


Validation of the Instrument

For validation purposes, the researcher initially submitted a sample of the set of survey questionnaires and after approval; the survey is conducted to five respondents.  After the questions are answered, the researcher asked the respondents for any suggestions or any necessary corrections to ensure further improvement and validity of the instrument.  The researcher again examined the content of the interview questions to find out the reliability of the instrument.  The researchers excluded irrelevant questions and changed words that would be deemed difficult by the respondents, too much simpler terms.

Administration of the Instrument


The researcher excluded the five respondents who initially used for the validation of the instrument.  The researcher also tallies, score and tabulate all the responses in the provided interview questions. Moreover, the interview used is a structured interview. It is consisted of a list of specific questions and the interviewer does not deviate from the list or inject any extra remarks into the interview process. The interviewer may encourage the interviewee to clarify vague statements or to further elaborate on brief comments. Otherwise, the interviewer attempts to be objective and tries not to influence the interviewer's statements. The interviewer does not share his/her own beliefs and opinions. The structured interview is mostly a "question and answer" session. 

Statistical Treatment of the Data

When the entire survey questionnaire has collected, the researcher used statistics to analyse all the data.

The statistical formulae to be used in the survey questionnaire was the following:

1.        Percentage – to determine the magnitude of the responses to the questionnaire.


% = -------- x 100         ;           n – number of responses

            N                                 N – total number of respondents


2.        Weighted Mean


            f1x1 + f2x2  + f3x3 + f4x4  + f5x5

x = ---------------------------------------------  ;



where:             f – weight given to each response

                        x – number of responses

                        xt – total number of responses


            To evaluate the information gathered, the following analysis instruments are used: percentage analysis, mean and median analysis, chi-square, and SPSS for statistical analysis of information gathered from the questionnaire survey.


List of References


Adler, J. (1998). The tutor age. Newsweek, (March 30), 47-50.

Anderson, J.A. (1988). Cognitive styles and multicultural populations. Journal of Teacher Education, 39, 2-9.

Axelson, J.A. (1993). Counseling and development in a multicultural society (2nd ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Bandura, A. (1990). Multidimensional scales of perceived self-efficacy. Stanford, CA: Stanford University.

Banks, J.A. (1993). Multicultural education: Historical development, dimensions, and practice. In L. Darling-Hammond (Ed.), Review of Research in Education. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association, 3-49.

Benjamin K. (1994). Qualitative Reasoning: Modeling and Simulation with Incomplete Knowledge. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Bennett, C.I. (1986). Comprehensive multicultural education: Theory and practice. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Bigaj, S. J., Shaw, S. F., Cullen, J. P., McGuire, J. M., & Yost, D. S. (1995). Services for students with learning disabilities at two- and four-year institutions: Are they different? Community College Review, 23, 17-33.

Blackorby, J., & Wagner, M. (1996). Longitudinal postschool outcomes of youth with disabilities: Findings from the national longitudinal transition study. Exceptional Children, 62, 399-413.

Bowman, P. J., & Howard, C. (1985). Race-related socialization, motivation, and academic achievement: A study of Black youth in three-generation families. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 24, 134-141.

Boykin, A. W. (2001). The challenges of cultural socialization in the schooling of African American elementary school children: Exposing the hidden curriculum, In W. H. Watkins, J. H. Lewis, & V. Chou (Eds.), Race and education: The roles of history and society in educating African American students. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon, 190-199.

Brinckerhoff, L. C., Shaw, S. E, & McGuire, J. M. (1992). Promoting access, accommodation, and independence for college students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 25(7), 417-429.

Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Bronfenbrenner, U. (1986). Ecology of the family as a context for human development: Research perspectives. Developmental Psychology, 22, 723-742.

Brookover, W. B., Erickson, E. L., & Joiner, L. M. (1967). Self-concept of ability and school achievement, III. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University.

Brophy, J. (1991). I know I can do this, but where's my motivation? American Journal of Community Psychology, 19, 371-377.

Bursuck, W., Rose, E., Cowen, S., & Yahaya, M. A. (1989). Nationwide survey of postsecondary education services for students with learning disabilities. Exceptional Children, 56, 236-245.

Carlson, S. A. (1985). The ethical appropriateness of subject-matter tutoring for learning disabled adolescents. Learning Disability Quarterly, 8, 310-314.

Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development (1992). A matter of time: Risk and opportunity in the nonschool hours. New York: Carnegie Corporation of New York.

Castaneda, A., & Gray, T. (1974). Bicognitive processes in multicultural education. Education Leadership, 32, 203-207.

Cauce, A. M., Felner, R. D., & Primavera J. (1982). Social support in high-risk adolescents: Structural components and adaptive impact. American Journal of Community Psychology, 10, 417-428

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2000). Youth risk behavior surveillance--United States, 1999. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 49(SS05), 1-96.

Ceprano, M. A. (1995). Strategies and practices of individuals who tutor adult illiterates voluntarily. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 39(1), 56-64.

Clark, M. L. (1983). Family life and social achievement: Why poor Black children succeed or fail. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Clark, M. L. (1991). Social identity, peer relations, and academic competence of African-American adolescents. Education and Urban Society, 24, 41-52.

Cohen, P. A., Kulik, J., & Kulik, C. C. (1982). Educational outcomes of tutoring: A meta analysis of findings. American Educational Research Journal, 19, 237-248.

Cohen, R.A. (1969)., Conceptual styles, culture conflict, and nonverbal tests of intelligence. American Anthropologist, 71, 826-828.

Coleman, J., and Hoffer, T. (1987). Public and private high schools: The impact of             communities. New York: Basic Books.

Connell, J. P., & Wellborn, J. G. (1991). Competence, autonomy and relatedness: A motivational analysis of self-system processes. In M. Gunnar & A. Sroufe (Eds.), Minnesota Symposium on Child Psychology. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 23, 43-77.

Cotterell, J. L. (1992). School size as a factor in adolescents' adjustment to the transition to secondary school. Journal of Early Adolescence, 12, 28--45.

Creswell, J.W. (1994). Research design. Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.

Davis, J. E., & Jordan, W. J. (1994). The effects of school context, structure, and experiences on African American males in middle and high school. Journal of Negro Education, 63, 570-587.

Deshler, D. D., Hock, M. F., Schumaker, J. B. (1999). Tutoring Programs for Academically Underprepared College Students: A Review of the Literature
Journal of College Reading and Learning, 29(2).

Dornbusch, S. M., Ritter, P. L., & Steinberg, L. (1991). Community influences on the relation of family statuses to adolescent school performance: Differences between African Americans and non-Hispanic Whites. American Journal of Education, 99, 543-567.

Dornbusch, S. M., Ritter, P. L., Leiderman, P. H., Roberts, D. F., & Fraleigh, M. J.            (1987). The relation of parenting style to adolescent school performance. Child       Development, 58, 1244-1257.

Downing, H.; LoVette, O.; Emerson, P. (1994). An investigation of at-risk students’ reasons for staying in school. Journal of Humanistic Education and Development, 33(2), 83-88.

Dunn, C. (1995). A comparison of three groups of academically at-risk college students. Journal of College Student Development, 36, 270-279.

Eccles, J. S., Lord, S., & Midgley, C. (1991). What are we doing to early adolescents? The impact of educational contexts on early adolescents. American Journal of Education, 89, 521-542.

Eccles, J. S., Midgley, C., Wigfield, A., Buchanan, C., Reuman, D., Flanagan, C., & MacIver, D. (1993). Development during adolescence: The impact of stage-environment fit on adolescents' experiences in schools and families. American Psychologist, 48, 90-101.

Elias, M. J., Gara, M., & Ubriaco, M. (1985). Sources of stress and support in children's transition to middle school: An empirical analysis. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 14, 112-118.

Ensminger, M. E., & Slusarcick, A. L. (1992). Paths to high school graduation or dropout: A longitudinal study of a first-grade cohort. Sociology of Education, 65, 95-113.

Farr, M. (1998). Nikerson High School physical science after-school tutoring program. Journal of Critical Inquiry Into Curriculum and Instruction, 1(1), 41-47.

Finn, J. D. (1989). Withdrawing from school. Review of Educational Research, 59, 117-142.

Ford, D. Y. (1993). Black students' achievement orientation as a function of perceived family achievement orientation and demographic variables. Journal of Negro Education, 62, 47-66.

Ford, D. Y., & Harris, J. J. (1996). Perceptions and attitudes of Black students toward school, achievement, and other educational variables. Child Development, 67, 1141-1152.

Fordham, S. (1988). Racelessness as a factor in Black students' school success: Pragmatic strategy or Pyrrhic victory? Harvard Educational Review, 58, 54-84.

Fordham, S., & Ogbu, J. U. (1986). Black students' school success: Coping with the "burden of 'acting white.'" The Urban Review, 18, 176--206.

Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Bentz, J., Phillips, N. B., & Hamlett, C. L. (1994). The nature of student interactions during peer tutoring with and without prior training and experience. American Educational Research Journal, 31(1), 75-103

Gay, G. (2000). Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research, and practice. New York: Teachers College Press.

Gibbs, J. T., Brunswick, A. F., Connor, M. E., Dembo, R., Larson, T. E., Reed, R. J., & Solomon, B. (1988). Young, black, and male in America: An endangered species. Dover, MA: Auburn House.

Gifford, V. D., & Dean, M. M. (1990). Differences in extracurricular activity participation, achievement, and attitudes toward school between ninth-grade students attending junior high school and those attending senior high school. Adolescence, 25, 799-802.

Gottfredson, D. L. (1981). Black-white differences in the educational attainment process: What have we learned? American Sociological Review, 46, 542-557.

Graesser, A. C., Bowers, C., & Hacker, D. J. (1997). An anatomy of naturalistic tutoring. In K, Hogan & M. Pressley (Eds.), Scaffolding student learning: Instructional approaches and issues (pp. 145-183). Cambridge, MA: Brookline Books.

Greenberger, E., & O'Neil, R. (1991). Characteristics of father's and mother's jobs: Implications for parenting and children's social development. Paper presented at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Seattle, WA.

Gregory, L. W. (1995). The "turnaround" process: Factors influencing the school success of urban youth. Journal of Adolescent Research, 10, 136--154.

Hale, J. E. (200l). Learning while black: Creating educational excellence for African American children. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Hale-Benson, J.E. (1986). Black children: Their roots, culture and learning styles (rev. ed.). Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Hancock, L. (1994). A Sylvan invasion. Newsweek, (December 19), 52-53.

Harry, B., & Anderson, M. G. (1994). The disproportionate placement of African American males in special education programs: A critique of the process. Journal of Negro Education, 63, 602-619.

Hernandez, H. (1989). Multicultural education: A teacher's guide to content and process. Columbus: Merrill.

Herrnstein, R., & Murray, C. (1994). The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life. New York: The Free Press.

Hock, M. F., Schumaker, J. B., & Deshler, D. D. (1998). Closing the gap to success in secondary schools: A model for cognitive apprenticeship. In M. Pressley, K. Harris, & S. Graham (Eds.), Advances in teaching and learning. Cambridge, MA: Brookline Books, 1-52.

Houck, C. K., Asselin, S. B., Troutman, G. C., & Arrington, J. M. (1992). Students with learning disabilities in the university environment: A study of faculty and student perceptions. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 25(10), 678-684.

House, J. D., & Wohlt, V. (1990). The effects of tutoring program participation on the performance of academically underprepared college freshmen. Journal of College Student Development, 31,365-370.

Jayakody, R., Chatters, L. M., & Taylor, R. I. (1993). Family support to single and married African American mothers: The provision of financial, emotional, and child care assistance. Journal of Marriage and Family, 55, 261-276.

Jenkins, L. E. (1989). The Black family and academic achievement. In G. V. Berry & J. K. Asamen (Eds.), Black students: Psychosocial issues and academic achievement. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 138-152.

Kaufman, T. U., & Adema, J. L. (1998). The learning support center: A systems approach to special needs. Intervention in School and Clinic, 33, 163-183.

Kea, C. D. (1987). An analysis of critical teaching behaviors employed by teachers of students with mild handicaps. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Kansas, Lawrence.

Keim, J., McWhirter, J. J., & Bernstein, B. L. (1996). Academic success and university accommodation for learning disabilities: Is there a relationship? Journal of College Student Development, 37, 502-509.

Kennedy, E. (1995). Correlates of perceived popularity among peers: A study of race and gender differences among middle school students. Journal of Negro Education, 64, 186-195.

Kirk, R. H. (1997). Inner-city partnerships. Clearing House, 70(3), 116.

Kohn, M. (1977). Class and conformity (2nd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Kunjufu, J. (1988). To be popular or smart: The Black peer group. Chicago: African-American Images.

Kurdek, L. A. (1987). Gender differences in the psychological symptomatology and coping strategies of young adolescents. Journal of Early Adolescence, 7, 395-410.

Legters, N., & McDill, E. L. (1994). Rising to the challenge: Emerging strategies for educating youth at risk. In R. J. Rossi (Ed.), Schools and students at risk. New York: Teachers College Press, 23-47.

Lepper, M. R., Drake, M. F., & O'Donnell-Johnson, T. (1997). Scaffolding techniques of expert human tutors. In K. Hogan & M. Pressley (Eds.), Scaffolding student learning: Instructional approaches and issues. Cambridge, MA: Brookline Books, 108-144.

Levin, H.M. (1989). Financing the Education of At-Risk Students. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 11(1), 47-60.

Levine, A., & Nidiffer, J. (1996). Beating the odds. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Lisella, L. C., & Serwatka, T. 5. (1996). Extracurricular participation and academic achievement in minority students in urban schools. The Urban Review, 28, 63-80.

Maccoby, E. E., & Martin, J. A. (1983). Socialization in the context of the family: Parent-child interaction. In P. H. Mussen (Eds.), Handbook of child psycholog. New York: Wiley, (4), 1-101.

Mack, M., & Wiltrout, D. (1998). Standards-based educational reform: A strategy to improve educational outcomes for all learners. Alliance, 3(1), 1-7.

Madden, N. A., Slavin, R. E., Karweit, N. L., Dolan, L. J., & Wasik, B. A. (1993). Success for all: Longitudinal effects of a restructuring program for inner-city elementary schools. American Research Journal, 30, 123-148.

Madhere, S. (1989). Models of intelligence and the African American intellect. Journal of Negro Education, 58, 189-202.

Mannan, G., Charleston, L., Saghafi, B. (1986). A comparison of the academic performance of Black and White freshman' students on an urban commuter campus. Journal of Negro Education, 55(2), 155-161.

Marshall, S. (1995). Ethnic socialization of African American children: Implications for parenting, identity development, and academic achievement. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 24, 377-396.

Mason, C. A., Cauce, A. M., Gonzales, N., Hiraga, Y., & Grove, K. (1994). An ecological model of externalizing behaviors in African-American adolescents: No family is an island. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 4, 639-655.

Maton, K. I., Teti, D. M., Corns, K. M., Vieira-Baker, C. C., Lavine, J. R., Gouze, K. R., & Keating, D. P. (1996). Cultural specificity of support sources, correlates and contexts: Three studies of African-American and Caucasian youth. American Journal of Community Psychology, 24, 551-587.

Maxwell, M. (1990). Does tutoring help? Review of Research in Developmental Education, 7(4).

McAdoo, H. P. (1982). Stress-absorbing systems in Black families. Family Relations, 31, 479-488.

McArthur, D., Stasz, S., & Zmuidzinas, M. (1990). Tutoring techniques in algebra. Cognition and Instruction, 7, 197-244.

McLloyd, V. C. (1990). The impact of economic hardship on Black families and children: Psychological distress, parenting, and socioemotional development. Child Development, 61, 311-346.

McMillan & Reed (1994). Resilient At-Risk Students: Student Views About Why They Succeed. The Journal of At-Risk Issues, (1)2, 27-33.

Means, B., & Knapp, M.S. (1991). Cognitive approaches to teaching advanced skills to educationally disadvantaged students. Phi Delta Kappan, 73(4), 282-289.

Mellard, D. F., & Hazel, J. S. (1992). Social competencies as pathway to successful life transitions. Learning Disability Quarterly, 15, 251-265.

Merrill, D. C., Reiser, B. J., Merrill, S. K., & Landes, S. (1995). Tutoring: Guided learning by doing. Cognition and Instruction, 13, 315-372.

Mickelson, R. (1990). The attitude-achievement paradox among Black adolescents. Sociology of Education, 63, 44-61.

Mohr, E. (1991). A study of peer tutor training programs: A league report (Report No. JC10305). Overland Park, KS: League for Innovation in the Community College. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 322 777)

Mortenson, T. G. (1993). Postsecondary education opportunity: The Mortenson report on public policy analysis of opportunity for postsecondary education, 1992-93. Iowa City: Postsecondary Education Opportunity.

Mortenson, T. G., & Wu, A. (1990). High school graduation and college participation of young adults by family income backgrounds, 1970 to 1989. Iowa City: American College Testing Program.

Murry, C., Goldstein, D. E., & Edgar, E. (1997). The employment and engagement status of high school graduates with learning disabilities through the first decade after graduation. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 12, 151-160.

Murry, C., Goldstein, D. E., & Edger, E. (1997). The employment and engagement status of high school graduates with learning disabilities through the first decade after graduation. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 12(3), 151-160

National Center for Education Statistics. (2000). Trends in academic progress: Three decades of student performance (Report No. NCES 2000469). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement.

National Commission on Children. (1993). Just the facts: A summary of recent information on America's children and their families. Washington, DC: National Commission on Children.

National Council of Teachers of English (1989). In New York State Department  (1994). Curriculum, Instruction, Assessment: Preliminary Draft Framework. New York: NYSED.

New York State Department  (1994). Curriculum, Instruction, Assessment: Preliminary Draft Framework. New York: NYSED.

New York State Education Department (1996). Learning Standards for English Language Arts" rev. ed. New York: State Education Department.

New York State Education Department (1999). New York State Board of Regents. New York: The State Aid Work Group, December.

Ogbu, J. (1978). Minority education and caste: The American system in cross-cultural perspective. New York: Academic Press.

Parillo, V.N. (1990). Strangers to these shores (3rd ed.). New York: Macmillan.

Patton, J. M., & Baytops, J. L. (1995). Identifying and transforming the potential of young, gifted African Americans: A clarion call for action. In B. A. Ford, F. E. Obiakor, & J. M. Patton (Eds.), Effective education of African American exceptional learners: New perspectives. Austin, TX: PRO-ED. 27-66.

Patton, J. R., & Polloway, E. A. (1992). Learning disabilities: The challenges of adulthood. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 25(7), 410-415, 447.

Patton, M. (1987). How to use qualitative methods in evaluation. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.)

Patton, M. (1990). Qualitative evaluation methods. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Peters, M. (1985). Racial socialization of young Black children. In H. McAdoo & J. McAdoo (Eds.), Black children. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 159-173.

Placier, M. (1996). The cycle of student labels in education: The cases of “culturally deprives“ and “at risk.“ Educational Administration Quarterly, 32, 236-270.

Pressley, M., & McCormick, C. (1995). Cognition, teaching, and assessment. New York: HarperCollins.


Qakes, J. (1985). Keeping track: How schools structure inequality. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Qakes, J. (1994). Tracking, inequality, and the rhetoric of reform: Why schools don't change. In J. Kretovics & E. J. Nussel (Eds.), Transforming urban education (pp. 146-164). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Ralph, J. (1998). Improving Education For the Disadvantaged. Phi Delta Kappan. 70(5), 395-401.

Reyes, O., Gillock, K., & Kobus, K. (1994). A longitudinal study of school adjustment in urban, minority adolescents: Effects of a high school transition program American Journal of Community Psychology, 22, 341-369.

Reynolds, A. J., & Gill, S. (1994). The role of parental perspectives in the school adjustment of inner-city Black children. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 23, 671-694.

Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self image. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Rumberger, R. W. (1983). Dropping out of high school: The influence of race, sex, and family background. American Educational Research Journal, 20(2), 199-220

Sampson, R. J., & Laub, J. H. (1993). Crime in the making: Pathways and turning points through life. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Seidman, E., Aber, J. L., Allen, L., & French, S. E. (1996). The impact of the transition to high school on the self-system and perceived social context of poor urban youth. American Journal of Community Psychology, 24, 489-515.

Shade, B.J. (1982). Afro-American cognitive style: A variable in school success? Review of Educational Research, 52 (2), 219-244.

Shade, B.J. (1993). Cognitive strategies as determinants of school achievement. Psychology in the schools, 20, 488-493.

Shaw, S. R., & Braden, J. B. (1990). Race and gender bias in the administration of corporal punishment. School Psychology Review, 19, 378-383.

Simmons, D. C., Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Mathes, P., & Hodge, J. P. (1995). Effects of explicit teaching and peer tutoring on the reading achievement of learning-disabled and low-performing students in regular classrooms. The Elementary School Journal, 95(5), 387-408.

Simmons, R. G., Black, A., & Zhou, Y. (1991). African-American versus White children and the transition into junior high school. American Journal of Education, 99, 481-520.

Simons, R. L., Johnson, C., Beaman, J., Conger, R. D., & Whitbeck, L. B. (1996). Parents and peer group as mediators of the effect of community structure on adolescent problem behavior. American Journal of Community Psychology, 24, 145-171.

Sitlington, P. L., & Frank, A. R. (1990). Are adolescents with learning disabilities successfully crossing the bridge into adult life? Learning Disability Quarterly, 13, 97-11.

Sizer, T. R. (1996). Horace's hope: What works for the American high school. New York: Houghton Mifflin.

Sizer, T. R. (1984). Horace's Compromise: The Dilemma of the American High School. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Slaughter, D. T., & Epps, E. G. (1987). The home environment and academic achievement of Black American children and youth: An overview. Journal of Negro Education, 56, 3-20.

Slavin, R. E., Madden, N. A., Karweit, N. L., Dolan, L., Wasik, B, A., Shaw, A., Mainzer, K. L., & Haxby, B. (1991). Neverstreaming: Prevention and early intervention as an alternative to special education. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 24, 373-378.

Snyder, H. N. and Sickmund, M. (1999). Juvenile Offenders and Victims: National Report. New York: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, National Center for Juvenile Justice, September.

Steele, C. (1992). Race and the schooling of Black Americans. The Atlantic Monthly, 269, 68-78.

Steinberg, K., Mounts, N. S., Lamborn, S. D., & Dornbusch, S. M. (1991). Authoritative parenting and adolescent adjustment across varied ecological niches. Journal on Research on Adolescence, 1, 19-36.

Steinberg, L., Dornbusch, S. M., & Brown, B. B. (1992). Ethnic differences in adolescent achievement: An ecological perspective. American Psychologist, 47, 723-729.

Steinberg, L., Lamborn, S. D., Darling, N., Mounts, N. S., & Dornbusch, S. (1994). Over-time changes in adjustment and competence among adolescent from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful families. Child Development, 64, 754-770.

Sue, S.W., & Sue, D. (1990). Counseling the culturally different: Theory and practice (2nd ed). New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Taylor, R. D., Casten, R., Flickinger, S. M., Roberts, D., & Fulmore, C. D. (1994). Explaining the school performance of African-American adolescents. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 4, 21-44.

Taylor, R. D., Chatters, L. M., & Jackson, J. S. (1993). A profile of familial relations among three-generation Black families. Family Relations, 42, 332-341.

Terrell, F., Terrell, S., & Miller, F. (1993). Level of cultural mistrust as a function of educational and occupational expectations among Black students. Adolescence, 28, 573-578.

Thornton, M. C., Chatters, L. M., Taylor, R. J., & Allen, W. R. (1990). Sociodemographic and environmental correlates of racial socialization by Black parents. Child Development, 61, 401-409.

Tollefson, J. (1997, September). Lab offers strategic help after school. Strategram, 5, 1-7, The University of Kansas Center for Research on Learning.

Townsend, B. L. (2000). The disproportionate discipline of African American learners: Reducing school suspensions and expulsions. Exceptional Children, 66, 381-391.

Tucker, C. M., Chennault, S. A., Brady, B, A,, Fraser, K. P., Gaskin, V. T., Dunn, C., & Frisby, C. (1995). A parent, community, public schools, and university involved partnership education program to examine and boost academic achievement and adaptive functioning skills of African-American students. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 28, 174-185.

Vadasy, P. F., Jenkins, J. R., Antil, L. R., Wayne, S. K., & O'Connor, R. E. (1997). The effectiveness of one-to-one tutoring by community tutors for at-risk beginning readers. Learning Disability Quarterly, 20, 126-137.

Vogel, S. A., & Adelman, P. B. (1992). The success of college students with learning disabilities: Factors related to educational attainment. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 25(7), 430-441.

Vogel, S. A., Hruby, P. J., & Adelman, P. B. (1993). Educational and psychology factors in successful and unsuccessful college students with learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 8(1), 35-43.

Wasik, B. A., & Slavin, R. E. (1990, April). Preventing reading failure with one-to-one tutoring: A best evidence synthesis. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Boston.

Wehlage, G. G., & Rutter, R. A. (1986). Dropping out: how much do schools contribute to the problem? Teachers College Record, 87( 3), 374-392.

Whaley, A., & Smyer, D. A. (1998). Self-evaluation processes of African American youth in a high school completion program. The Journal of Psychology, 132, 317-327.

White, W. (1992). The postschool adjustment of persons with learning disabilities: Current status and future projections. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 25(7), 448-456.

Willis, M.G. (1989). Learning styles of African American children: A review of the literature and interventions. The Journal of Black Psychology, 16(1), 47-65.

Witkin, H.A., & Goodenough, D.R. (1981). Cognitive styles: Essence and origins. New York: International Universities Press, Inc.

Witt, P. A., & Crompton, J. L. (1997). The protective factors framework: A key to programming for benefits and evaluating for results. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 15(3), 1-18.

Woolfolk, A.E. (1993). Educational psychology (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.











comments powered by Disqus


Feed You can follow this conversation by subscribing to the comment feed for this post.

Verify your Comment

Previewing your Comment

This is only a preview. Your comment has not yet been posted.

Your comment could not be posted. Error type:
Your comment has been posted. Post another comment

The letters and numbers you entered did not match the image. Please try again.

As a final step before posting your comment, enter the letters and numbers you see in the image below. This prevents automated programs from posting comments.

Having trouble reading this image? View an alternate.


Post a comment

If you need thesis, dissertation or essay writing assistance, just email

Get posts by email address:

Delivered by FeedBurner

Blog powered by TypePad
Member since 09/2011