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03/02/2012

A Sample Introduction Paper


INTRODUCTION

With the advent of the Internet, companies of all sizes the world over paved way for a new technology that caused a dramatic shift in the marketing landscape. The Internet was an unknown phenomenon among business leaders till the late 1980s (Devarajan 2006). Initially, its use was confined to academic purposes and research domains, but the time came when the main driving force for new developments in the field is coming from the commercial sector, where it set off a wave of change that caught on with businesses all around the globe. Since then, organisations have been experimenting with various ways to exploit the Net to achieve competitive advantage. It soon became apparent that having business presence in the Internet is one of the best communication tools available.

Sheehan & Doherty (2000) believed that agencies are beginning to recognize the Internet as a valuable addition to their media ‘tool box’. This point was also demonstrated by rising adoption rates of the Internet by advertising (Bush, Bush, & Harris, 1998). According to Mark Thomas, manager of product marketing for Tnemec Company, Inc. ‘The Internet is not just another marketing tool,’ he said, ‘its ability to instantly communicate information to customers and provide useful tools for them is unmatched by other media’ (as cited in Agosta 2002).

Some of the largest and most able technology and information organisation have seen an opportunity to create a totally new market for their products and have concentrated much of their marketing expenditure to this end. Organisations as diverse as charities, public services and corporate businesses have been motivated to use the technology, driven by a fear that they are missing out by not being 'on the Internet' (Stroud 1998). For these reasons, charitable institution, Arboreal, in particular, have found a niche where their communication activities are brought up a notch, bringing their supporters closer to them. This paper will recommend implementation procedures concerning the adoption of Arboreal to internet technology. Further, it analyses the advantages and disadvantages of using the medium to achieve the organisation’s objectives.

 

BACKGROUND

The non-profit organisations are now creating significant ways to reach their supporters. And one of the significant ways is through internet technologies.  To handle the implementation of internet initiative and to define the path way in which these can be understood, there are a variety of factors that needs consideration. In this paper, the focus is on the implementation of the internet technologies—that is, to set up a latest design that could offer technical process preparation for the execution of internet technologies. The knowledge of the importance of management plans has been stated, yet the consideration towards the event in which Arboreal is operating in is one of the most serious factors that would affect its result. This is because Arboreal culture and the procedures they developed would have a blow on the status, development and progress of the said charitable institution. Aside from this, there is the inevitability to assess the procedures and the latent effects that these will have on the future of the internet initiative. In making this initiative to develop into a stabilized, various segments of the organization have to be issued their full works and also the restrictions of the time in which they should be able to advance.

 

Formulate Goals

As part of input insertion, goals formulation must be considered. What is the specific need of the organization concerning the implementation of internet technology?  Existential prospect will focus on developing individuals and the organization.  Technical outlook will focus on faster, better, and cheaper with hardware application and implementation.  Do you want the largest potential use of the internet throughout Arboreal? The more they use the internet the more empowered people feel.  These assessments are significant and determine potential choices concerning the internet and the organization.

This preliminary phase should describe the objectives and goals for the Website and starts to examine and collate the data needed to justify resources and the budget needed. This is also the time to state the scope of the site content, the interactive functionality and technology support necessary, and the profundity and extent of data possessions to fill out the site and meet up the supporter's expectations.

Specification of user’s research and requirements

In the last part of this stage, one or more manuscripts should be formed that describe issues such as:

  • profile of users: who the main internal and external users of the site will be and what tasks they will do online
  • scope: what is and isn't consist of within the functionality of the existing initiative and who is in charge for each element
  • plan: do you have enough data to sensibly approximate resourcing, timelines and budget
  • technical requirements: will the internet technology initiative necessitate the help of technical experts within Arboreal and the suppliers of the chosen technology
  • organisation requirements: which aspects of Arboreal process does the site need to bear, and how the accomplishment of this will be assessed
  • preliminary design: establish the main aspects of the layout and navigation of site.

 

Participation Issues

 The planning team should create resolutions that support wide use and ease of access for all supporters of the organisation.  The team should set up some brief procedures or guidelines for quantity and quality, but there should be no barriers that serve to confine interested and possible supporters from communicating on the internet.

Basic Rules

As much as possible the rules should be kept at minimum in order to help everyone perform well and attain suitable goals. All organisation policy concerning good taste, and discretion should be appropriate.  In addition, all the documents that are authoritatively created by Arboreal should be clearly patented, recognized, and have a discretion label.  Those documents could also be acknowledged with several inimitable formatting.

 

Awareness and Adoption of Internet Technology

Factors related to the adoption of Internet Technology should be discussed through workshops, seminars and training sessions.  With this, not only the supporters of the organisation should have access to e-mail but also the staff in order to promote organisation’s communication through internet. Thus, these call for the need of employees to become computer literate.  Meaning there should be a training to be offered in the beginning and periodically.  Arboreal members will have a wide assortment of practices/training with computers, and some will need much more training and practice to amplify their skill and buoyancy with the internet.

 

 

 

Design and development

In implementation, Internet should consider the development and design. After the needs have been investigated and supported, the plan phase engages inclusive documentation and description of each attribute and procedure of the site. An example, or sample set of pages, can be an excellent gauge of how the initiative is shaping up, and assists in visualizing the output. On the other hand, a web developer may identify each screen significantly.

 

Testing

Compared to other software, web-based applications need thorough testing, as the applications will at all times function as a multi-user system with bandwidth restrictions. A great number of testing procedures that needs completion are stress testing, integration testing, load testing, Scalability testing, cross-browser compatibility testing and resolution testing. Both manual and automated testing must be completed without failure. For instance it’s essential to examination high-speed loading graphics and to estimate their loading period, as this is very vital for any web site. There are definite testing equipment plus some online testing widgets which can assist the testers to check their applications. For example ASP developers can utilize Microsoft's Web Application Test Tool to test the ASP applications, which is a free tool accessible from the Microsoft site to download.

 

ADVANTAGES

With regards to internet technology, acceptance of a certain organisation has received wide and intense interest among information system researchers (Adams, et al., 1992 and Venkatesh & Davis, 2000). The factors that are significant in technology acceptance have been examined across varied information technologies and user populations (Adams, et al., 1992).  A cumulative tradition has already been established in technology acceptance research, especially in the management and information system disciplines. Davis & Venkatesh (1996) noted that behavioural intention to use a new technology like the internet technologies in Arboreal is determined by the individual’s attitude toward using this technology.  Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use are relating to the intention and behaviour. 

Perceived usefulness is defined as the extent to which a person finds using the system will enhance his or her job performance, while perceived ease of use is defined as the extent to which a person believes that using a particular system will be free of effort (Doll et al., 1998 and Wang et al, 2003). These two have been confirmed and validated in many empirical studies to be important factors in affecting system usage (Adam et at.,1992 and Moon & Kim, 2001).

Venkates & Davis (2000) found that the perception of usefulness is formed in interaction with other individuals and a system. The perceived usefulness of something is its ability to provide a relationship, for example, the given thing as a means to a desired end, or to provide a rational upon which to make decisions (Barczak et al., 1997).  Based on formerly conducted researches and their results, the more useful the system is seen, the more likely it is to be that the system is also being used. Hence, Eriksson et al., (2005) argued that perceived usefulness could be the only major factor directly influencing the attitude towards internet technologies.

It has been found that amount of information has a significant influence on perceived usefulness. In the context of internet technologies planning, Eriksson et al., (2005) identified information about the benefits of using a product or service as an essential service and product promotion strategy. If people believed the system would enhance their performance very well, then the technology system would be useful. Their opinions are consistent with Gerrard & Cunningham’s findings. Moreover, adoption is the acceptance and continued use of a service. Rogers & Shoemaker (1971) found that users of internet technologies go through a process of knowledge, persuasion, decision and confirmation before they are ready to consider the technology. If users are not adopting Internet technologies, it may be because they are not aware about information or this service being available.

Additionally, Tornatzky & Klein (1982) and Tan & Teo (2000) suggested that relative advantage is an important factor in determining adoption of innovations. This is also supported by Roger’s study of Innovation Diffusion Theory that found the perceived usefulness of an innovation is positively related to its rate of adoption (Rogers, 1983). Similarly, as Internet technology allows users to communicate and process certain tasks at their own convenient time at lower cost, it provides many advantages to the user in terms of price and convenience (Polatoglu & Ekin, 2001). As a consequence, the greater the perceived usefulness of using Internet technologies, the more likely that Internet will be adopted.

Besides, Gerrard & Cunningham (2003) found people don’t adopt technology to perceive the service it may be because the Internet Web sites are more complex and not easy to operate. Thus, perceived ease of use might be another of the most significant determinants of a user’s acceptance of Internet technologies.

In the case of Arboreal, the adoption of internet creates significant advantages.  One of the advantages is the ease of use and convenience in communicating and doing certain tasks. Perceived ease of use means the user’s perception of the level of easiness to use the system.  With the internet, supporters of Arboreal found the ease of Internet technologies in doing transaction. The feelings may increase a user’s intrinsic motivation, which in turn will lead to the exploration of detailed system functions and features, thereby increasing perceived system usefulness. Therefore, if an online service is found to be very difficult to use, it is obviously that the supporter/users is less likely to do the transactions in a more traditional way. Consequently, users’ attitudes about the Internet banking service will be created, which will eventually motivate them to spend more time navigating Arboreal information over Internet. 

With respect to the current environment of Arboreal and Internet advantages, Internet technologies is considered as the more practical means of doing business in terms of its aforementioned advantages- speed, ease of transaction, saves time, money and effort, among others. From the previous discussion, a general consensus is evident with regards to the relative good sides of the Internet as compared to the traditional means of communication.  This more or less represents the general response of online organisation operating via the World Wide Web. This conjecture derives strong reasoning background primarily from the astounding positive attitude of respondents regarding their Internet based operations.  It’s also important to note the general view on the downsides; quite strong is the support asserted to Internet based organization that the subjects exhibit the overall perception that these downsides don’t offer much serious a concern to the affairs of the operations.

By and large, the bottom line of this paper boils down to the conclusion that the internet technology is an important tool in organisation’s negotiations. This study has confirmed the predetermined credence of the Internet being a significant dynamic in organisational development. Aside from this, it has also verified the earlier assumptions about the relative advantages of internet technologies as a communication tool. These advantages of the Internet in terms of communication extend beyond organisation implications. It’s precisely a direct upshot of this fact that the Internet has been deemed a vital necessity in contemporary organisation contracts. Internet technology juxtaposed with transactions proves to be an efficient combo.

 

DISADVANTAGES

It has been predicted that by 2007, there will be 1.35 billion internet users globally and 2 billion mobile phone users worldwide, with an estimated 61.1million active mobile users in the UK alone and Europe being the second continent (next to Asia) having the highest percentage of Internet usage (Berends 2006). Taking from the impressive statistics, it can be inferred that an Internet presence is vital to the activities of Arboreal so that they will be able to reach more people and inform them concerning their programs about charities. Although the Internet might manage to bring the organisation more supporter and more funds ever if they starts having an Internet presence, there are still disadvantages to the communication tool which the organisations is on the constant process of remedying, targeting to minimise the following limitations through the development of programs and software which will enable Arboreal to take full advantage of the benefits that the World Wide Web has to offer. Simply having a web site does not guarantee an increase in recognition and supporters, even though the Internet provides extra opportunities and the potential communication effectiveness may be huge.

The organisation may not have been fully prepared for, both intellectually and logistically, the speed to which the response from the organisation is expected by the supporters. Let say with the massive amount of information available in the Arboreal site, this lengthens the time that the user spends on surfing the site, which might prove detrimental to the Internet’s cause. The average span of a person’s attention obviously was not taken into consideration, and it is one of the more serious limitations of Arboreal’s internet strategy, being unable to keep the site as concise as possible. Although the existence of a lot of information is good for Internet presence, an overwhelmingly large amount of it may not prove beneficial in trying to achieve the organisation’s objectives.

Further, people change email addresses constantly, and if the Arboreal keeps a mailing list of any sort, it can be expected that around 10% of the addresses bounce every time the firm sends an email. Things also change quickly on the Internet that the Arboreal needs to devote a reasonable amount of time to keeping the site up to date with things. Internet presence fails to reach people who have no access to the Net, as well. This is a limitation, especially in the case of Arboreal, since there are people who love to join charitable institutions but not using internet technologies.

 

CONCLUSION

The Internet presence of an organisation, in this case, the Arboreal, has vast potentialities as well as limitations. It is important to note that with globalisation and with the current rate of advancement in technology, there is an increasingly bigger chance of getting the entire organisations message through to the target people with the utilisation of the Internet. As discussed, the wise use of a website could attract and find potential supporters. The Internet strategies of the organisation, therefore, need to be consistent with what was preset as objective of the organisation and in the current era where innovations are an edge, this is very vital.

REFERENCE

Adams, D.A., Nelson, R.R., & Todd, P.A. (1992). "Perceived usefulness, ease of use, and usage of information technology: a replication", MIS Quarterly, No.June, pp.227-47.

Agosta, M. (2002). Web Marketing, Coatings World, accessed 20 November, 2006, <http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-89812999.html>.

Barczak, G., Ellen, P. S. & Pilling, B. K. (1997). “Developing typologies of consumer motives for use of technologically based banking services”, Journal of Business research, Vol. 38 No.2, pp. 131-9.

Berends, A. (2006). The Online Revolution and its changing Impact on Marketing Exhibitions, Association of Event Organisers, accessed 13 November, 2009, <http://www.aeo.org.uk/files/Alison%20Berends.pdf>.

Bush, A., Bush, V. & Harris, S. (1998). Advertiser Perceptions of the Internet as a Marketing Communications Tool, Journal of Advertising Research, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 17-27.

Davis, F. D. & Venkatesh, V. (1996). “A critical assessment of potential measurement biases in the technology acceptance mode: three experiments”, International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, Vol. 45,pp. 19-45.

Devarajan, R. (2006). The Net Impact on Businesses, Business Line, accessed 13 November, 2009, <http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/manager/2006/06/26/stories/2006062600291100.htm>.

Doll, W.J & Torkzadeh, G. (1988). “The measurement of end-user computing satisfaction”, MIS Quarterly, June, pp. 259-74.

 

Eriksson, K., Kerem, K. & Nilsson, D. (2005). “Customer acceptance of internet banking in Estonia”, International Journal of Bank Marketing, Vol. 23 No. 2,pp. 200-16.

 

Gerrard, P. and Cunningham, J. B. (2003). “The diffusion of Internet banking among Singapore consumers”, International Journal of Bank Marketing, Vol. 21 No. 1, pp. 16-28.

 

Moon, J.-W., Kim, Y.-G. (2001). "Extending the TAM for a World-Wide-Web context", Information & Management, Vol. 38 No.4, pp.217-30.

 

Polatoglu, V.N., & Ekin, S. (2001). "An empirical investigation of the Turkish consumers’ acceptance of Internet banking services", International Journal of Bank Marketing, Vol. 19 No.4, pp.156-65.

 

Rogers, E. M., & Shoemaker, F. F., (1991).  Communication of Innovations: A Cross Culture approach. Collier McMillan, London.

 

Rogers, E. M., (1983).”New Product adoption and diffusion”. Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 1 No. 4, pp. 290-31.

Sheehan, K. & Doherty, C. (2000). IMC on the WWW: An Exploration, In Proceedings of the 2000 Conference of the American Academy of Advertising.

 

Stroud, D. (1998). Internet Strategies: A Corporate Guide to Exploiting the Internet, Macmillan, Basingstoke, England.

Tan, M., & Teo, T.S.H. (2000). "Factors influencing the adoption of Internet banking", Journal of the Association for Information Systems, Vol. 1 No.5, pp.1-42.

 

Tornatzky, L.G., & Klein, K.J. (1982). "Innovation characteristics and innovation adoption-implementation: a meta-analysis of findings", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. 29 pp.28-45.

 

Venkatesh, V. & Davis, F.D. (2000). “A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance mode; four longitudinal field studies”, Management Science, Vol. 46 No. 2, pp.186-205.

 

 

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