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Thesis Chapter 3 - The Best Environmental Management Practices Of The Carbonated Manufacturing Industry By Comparing The Environmental Management Practices In The UK And In The US

Chapter 3



This chapter shall discuss the research methods available for the study and what is applicable for it to use. Likewise, the chapter shall present how the research will be implemented and how to come up with pertinent findings.


Method of Research to be Used

There are three kinds of research methods: correlational, experimental and descriptive. (Walliman and Baiche, 2001) The correlational kind of research method is used due to ethical problems with experiments. Moreover, it is also used due to practical problems with experiments. Moreover, inferring causality from correlation not actually impossible, but very difficult. This mode of study is widely applicable, cheap, and usually ethical. Nonetheless, there exist some "third variable" issues and measurement problems. The correlational research refers to studies in which the purpose is to discover relationships between variables through the use of correlational statistics. A correlational relationship between two variables is occasionally the result of an outside source, so we have to be careful and remember that correlation does not necessarily tell us about cause and effect. If a strong relationship is found between two variables, using an experimental approach can test causality.

On the other hand, the experimental method is the only method that can be used to establish cause-and-effect relationships. (Creswell, 1994) That is, it is the only one that can be used to explain the bases of behaviour and mental processes. In this method, the subjects are split into two (or more) groups. One group, called the experimental group gets the treatment that the researcher believes will cause something to happen (this treatment is formally called the independent variable). The experimental and control groups are compared on some variable that is presumed to reflect the effects of the treatment, or outcome. This is formally referred to as the dependent variable.

And lastly, the descriptive research method uses observation and surveys. In this method, it is possible that the study would be cheap and quick. It could also suggest unanticipated hypotheses. Nonetheless, it would be very hard to rule out alternative explanations and especially infer causations. Thus, this study will use the descriptive approach.  This descriptive type of research will utilize observations in the study.  To illustrate the descriptive type of research, Creswell (1994) will guide the researcher when he stated: Descriptive method of research is to gather information about the present existing condition.  The purpose of employing this method is to describe the nature of a situation, as it exists at the time of the study and to explore the cause/s of particular phenomena.            

In this research study, the research design that will be used by the researcher to gather data will be the descriptive research design. The data will be collected from the available secondary sources since gathering of primary research is deemed unnecessary and possibly not within the time and financial capabilities of the author. It is therefore not a priority in conducting the said data gathering as numerous secondary data are available in print and in online resources.

Saunders et al. ( 2003) enumerated the different classifications of secondary data. Of the three sub-category types, survey type data will be less used. However, documentary secondary research of data will be extensively used as well as multiple source secondary data. This will be done by making use of academic and business/commercial journals, local, international and business newspapers, company sustainability reports, environmental NGOs’ journals and websites, environmental regulatory organizations’ reports and journals and government environmental agency reports.


Creswell, J.W. (1994) Research design. Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage.


Walliman, Nicholas and Bousmaha Baiche. (2001) Your research project. SAGE Publications



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