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02/22/2012

The integrated motivational program


Question 1

The integrated motivational program will focus on giving financial and non financial rewards to the staff. In a much narrower sense, incentive compensation is pay based on output. Incentives provide for variable rewards dependent upon results accomplished, amount of work produced, or measurable performance. At one extreme of the incentive spectrum, compensation is determined solely by the level of output: no output, no compensation. At the other extreme, a base level of compensation is assured and additional financial rewards are given for exceeding stipulated expectations: a guaranteed salary, plus a performance bonus. Incentive compensation may be paid on the basis of individual effort or group effort. Incentive schemes may be used at the employee level of the organization or the top-management level (Caruth & Handlogten 2001). Financial Rewards are given to boost the morale of the personnel and award them for good production levels. Financial rewards need to have reasonable values so that the company will not incur higher expenses. It needs to have reasonable values so that personnel will not be insulted.  It will be in the form of cash or non cash rewards. Cash reward will come in the form of financial gifts that may or may not be received immediately by the staff.  Non cash rewards will come in the form of gift cards, gift certificates or travel benefits.

 

Management theorists in general agree that money is not all that employees, either as individuals or members of a team, desire in a working relationship. When rewarding individuals or teams there are a number of other non monetary ways that may be used to reward individuals or teams effort: Plaques, trophies, gifts, meals, and communications of appreciation during organizational meetings or through company wide bulletins represent a few of these ways (De Bruijn 2002). The timing of rewards is also important. To be effective, rewards must be given as soon as possible after the behavior that earned them. If rewards are given months after the behavior that earned them, an individual or a team may see little or no connection between behavior and reward; consequently, any chance to reinforce positive team behavior may be lost. For greatest psychological impact, the individual or team should be informed of any rewards it is to receive before public recognition is given. To do otherwise may detract from the impact of the reward (De Bruijn 2002). Non financial rewards will be in form of and communications or messages of appreciation, Plaques, trophies, gifts and free meals. The goal of non financial rewards is to show to an individual or group of personnel that their good performance has been noticed by the firm and the firm thanks them for performing well. Unlike financial rewards, non financial rewards need to be given within a few days after someone or a group performs well so that they can truly feel the reason for the non financial reward. The motivational program will be implemented one week after it has been explained to the staff. The goals of the motivational programs and the reward system will be fully explained to the employees before the motivation program will be implemented. The employees’ performance will be monitored to see whether they are worthy of a reward. The staff members who do not perform well will be given reminders.

Question 2

            Stage of group development will moderate the relationship of leader impartiality to decision process characteristics. For instance, groups with a history of working together will exhibit a more positive constellation of decision process characteristics in the absence of leader impartiality than will ad hoc groups. Leader impartiality helps ensure that member inputs are fairly elicited and weighted, and that outcomes reflect those inputs (Turner 2001). In the absence of impartiality, alternative mechanisms, such as group norms and established procedures, are necessary to achieve these results. Because the existence of defined norms and procedures occurs only after the group has some history of interaction, leader impartiality should be more pivotal early ill the group's life. Stage of group development will moderate the relationships of group cohesiveness to members' self-censorship and to perceived unanimity. For example, cohesiveness will have a more positive relationship to divergence of members' stated opinions in the mature stage of group development than in earlier stages. Members of a cohesive group in the mature stage may feel sufficiently secure in their roles to challenge one another (Turner 2001).

 

Group type will affect emergent group characteristics. For example, perceived member unanimity will be lower in an advisory group than in a group given final decision-making responsibility. In general, group leader and member time and other resources will be allocated in ways that best achieve desired outcomes. Because unanimity may be less critical in an advisory group than in a group that was responsible for making, and perhaps implementing, the decision, the group leader may feel correspondingly less need to devote resources to seeking agreement and closure (De Ven & Poole 2004). Group type will affect decision process characteristics. For example, an advisory group may give less attention to development of contingency plans and gathering of control-related information than would a group having the responsibility for implementing the decision. The group decision rule will influence the degree to which decision process characteristics are oriented toward convergence. For example, there will be more pressure for convergence with a consensus decision rule than with a majority decision rule (De Ven & Poole 2004). The model of group development provides the stages of how a group is formed. The stages of the model of group development include Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing and Adjourning. The group is currently on the performing stage wherein the group starts to do its duties. In the first meeting the members would likely try to know the other members and determine the different personalities of the members.  In the first meeting the members would most likely try to adapt to the group and the roles that will be assigned to them. As a project leader, the things would be done in the first meeting involves introductions, assignment of duties, explanation of the goals of the group and discussion. Introductions will help the members know each other. Assignment of duties will help in making sure that everyone will have an idea of the part that they need to play. Explanation of the goals of the group helps in making sure that all members would have an individual objective. Discussion aims to build camaraderie and communication between the members.

Question 3

Current empirical data show that conflict styles are influenced by individualism-collectivism. People from individualistic cultures tend to favor styles of conflict resolution that are high in concern for the self, while collectivists are more likely to prefer styles that are high in concern for n-group members. When the others are members of an out-group, however, people from collectivistic cultures may be as concerned with their own outcomes as are people from individualistic cultures (Matsumoto 2001). Conflict styles range on a continuum from maximally direct to maximally indirect with several in-between styles that are only partially explicit. Further, there does not appear to be an absolute relationship between the directness of the style and the effects it has on interpersonal conflicts. Studies have observed that some harmonious couples communicate about conflicts very directly, whereas other harmonious couples avoid conflicts. Affect is a second important dimension of conflict styles. Some styles are hostile, others are neutral or friendly, and still other styles, such as conflict avoidance, are inconsistent or unclear in the sort of emotion expressed. The implications of affect are reasonably straightforward (Daly & Wiemann 1994).

 

Conflict styles tend to be reciprocal.  Generally, inconsistent styles do not fit together comfortably. It is more difficult and less plausible to deny the presence of conflict, for example, after the partner has disclosed deep-seated feelings of anxiety and resentment. There are also straightforward affective linkages between some styles (Daly & Wiemann 1994). There are various theories and studies that relate to conflict styles. Five of which were identified by Thomas and Killman. One conflict style aims to accommodate. This style pertains to the act where someone will just ignore the conflict so that the relationship will be maintained and acceptance can be given.  The accommodation style wants to focus more on the working relationship than achieving the goals.  The second conflict style aims to avoid. In this style one just wants to do anything he/she can to avoid in engaging in conflicts or engage in a confrontation. The avoid style doesn’t want to have unpleasant feelings.  The third conflict style aims to collaborate. In this style the goal is to search for a clear and logical solution that will satisfy all parties. The collaboration style wants to balance the achievements of goals and the maintenance of relationships.  The fourth conflict style aims to compete. In this style the goal is force one’s ideas because he/she believes that his/her idea is the best one. The conflict style just wants to achieve goals and satisfy individual needs.  The last conflict style aims to compromise. In this style the goal is for both parties to make compromise that will ensure that equal ideas will be followed.  The compromise style wants to meet halfway so that lengthy discussions will be avoided. The collaboration method of conflict resolution is chosen. This method will help in bridging the gap with the manager. In resolving the issue the guidelines include respectful delivery of ideas. The manager will not be disrespected, only the legitimate ideas/thoughts would be said to the manager. No personal vendetta would be evident; instead a better situation in the workplace would be the goal.

Question 4

Competence in the job without the ability to make things happen in the organization, results in wasted effort. In contrast, job competence complemented by influencing will result in career success. Influencing skills are now a necessary part of any job, whether one is in personnel, public relations, accounting or production. It does not matter if they are a new entrant to the company or a long-serving manager. Gone are the days when salespeople were the only ones who needed influencing skills (Huczynski 2004). The possession of such skills is the key to surviving in today's changing work environment. The ways things get done in the flatter organization structure, especially by those in middle-level line positions or in staff posts, is through influence. Coercion and formal authority are no longer a realistic option. The influence must be subtle and sincere to get decisions made in someone’s favor: upwards with senior management, downwards with those who report to the managers, and laterally with peers, co-workers and those in other organizations whose support is needed. It used to be said that in order to achieve success at the bottom of the corporate ladder, a company needs to put in time and acquire professional and technical expertise (Huczynski 2004).

 

While such expertise is necessary, it is not in itself sufficient. Knowing the job is only one aspect of being effective. The other part is being influential. Every personal interaction with another person is an influencing interaction. Over-reliance on formal power may lead one to gain employee compliance rather than their commitment. Workers may do the minimum that they can get away with, because of the way that they have been approached. Because the minimum has been accomplished, the manager cannot complain to the employee. However, over a period of time, the quality of the department's work will deteriorate. By relying solely on authority, managers restrict their ability to improve the performance of their departments or units, and hence endanger their own promotion prospects (Fisher & Sharp 2004). The use of authority or position power is inconsistent with the democratic values in organizations. To be an effective influencer, managers will have to make adjustments for example, how do they look, what do they say, and what they have to do. Additionally, managers will need to spend more time on crafting their message. This involves decisions on what to say, how to say it, in what communication mode, and at what time. Ones’ choices in both these areas will be determined by their assessment of their influencees, in terms of who they are, and what the company wants from them. Since the target audience and influencing objective will change over time, to be successful a manager will need to adapt to each new influencing situation (Fisher & Sharp 2004). In gaining power and influence in the organization, the respect of the other members of the organization should first be acquired. The other members of the organization need to see that the intent was good and they have similar goals for the organization. The other members of the company would be persuaded by showing them diligence and industriousness. The other members of the company would be given advices/thoughts on the secrets for success in the organization.

References

Caruth, DL & Handlogten, GD 2001, Compensation (and

understanding it too): A handbook for the perplexed, Quorum

Books, Westport, CT.

 

Daly, JA & Wiemann, JM (eds.) 1994, Strategic interpersonal

communication, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ.

 

De Bruijn, H 2002, Managing performance in the public

sector, Routledge, London.

 

De Ven, H & Poole, M (eds.) 2004, Handbook of

organizational change and innovation, Oxford University

Press, New York.

 

Fisher, EA & Sharp, SW 2004, The art of managing everyday

conflict: Understanding emotions and power struggles

Praeger, Westport, CT.

 

Huczynski, A 2004, Influencing within organizations,

Routledge, New York

 

Matsumoto, D (ed.) 2001, The handbook of culture &

psychology, Oxford University Press, New York.

 

Turner, ME (ed.) 2001, Groups at work: theory and research,

Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ.

 

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