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02/02/2012

ROOT CAUSE OF PROBLEM IN SOUTH SUDAN AND ROLE OF UNITED NATION POLICE IN BUILDING THE POLICE SERVICE OF THE REGION - RESEARCH PROPOSAL PAPER


ROOT CAUSE OF PROBLEM IN SOUTH SUDAN AND ROLE OF UNITED NATION POLICE IN BUILDING THE POLICE SERVICE OF THE REGION

 

 

INTRODUCTION

Sudan is an African country, largest in the African Continent and tenth largest in the world with respect to the geographical area. This country presently undergoing through complex political problems which has its roots in the history apart from socio economic issues which had certainly contributed towards unmaking of the country. This country had seen two long episodes of Civil war which has taken toll of million of peoples and resulted large number of human displacement. Acute Human Rights problem is in the Darfur region, west of the country. Although Darfur is not the scope of this research. Rest of the country can be divided in South Sudan (Christian-Tribal dominance and very poorly developed) and North Sudan (with Islamic dominance but better developed vis-à-vis South Sudan). Presently problem of Power and Resource (mainly Oil) sharing between North and South, bad law & order situations, Mobilization of armed personnel towards civil life, generation and development of Law enforcement agency (Police) etc. are few issues which are at the top of the agenda as per the CPA and Mandate of the UN. Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) is in force hence United Nation is running its Mission in the area as UNMIS.

 

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The research implies to several problems and issues as faced by Sudan Police Services that acquaints to certain peace issues and humanitarian rights and conflicts of the region upon such role of the United Nations as can be limited in building of effective police service in Sudan. The issues lead to peace keeping problems as there conflicting ideas that affect Sudan, UN and police centered force.

 

NATURE AND SCOPE OF STUDY

In academic circles, magnitude of the Sudan-Darfur conflict has served to qualify the theory that views violence and war as socially acceptable conflict resolution mechanisms, the perspective overlooks the vicious cycle associated with the use of violence to resolve disputes between and within groups. The UN and the international community are thus compelled to broaden their focus to include the eradication of poverty and hunger, as well as the causes of conflicts and natural calamities, in order to address the nexus between socio-economic and human security factors. UN, called for collective action to eradicate sources of human insecurity, especially conflicts. Among others, such efforts at the normative level include global consensus on “embracing and operationalising the key principles relating to the ‘responsibility to protect’, as the framework for collective action against genocide, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity, use of military force, to restore civilian peace and security. The scale of the humanitarian catastrophe in the Darfur conflict thus compelled the UN to galvanize international consensus that the Khartoum administration was failing in its responsibility to protect its citizens in Darfur, the urgent need for the UN to take over the peace mission in Darfur. In addition, for Darfur another Mission is going on as UNAMID which is out of the purview of this thesis. In UNMIS various activities are going on for helping the nation to come out of the problem and building it. These activities include Humanitarian assistance, Rule of Law, Human Rights, Gender Issues, HIV issues, DDR, Police activities etc. As I belong to the Police Service my intention to assess the impact of the UN Police activities on the general masses of the people of South Sudan and to suggest corrections wherever it is needed based on my studies. It is important to note that UN Police is not involved in executive work in Sudan as per the agreement of CPA and the Mandate of the United Nation but its activities are concentrated towards training the police service of Sudan , reforming and restructuring them, providing assistance in bringing them at par with any other democratic police of the world. Therefore community policing is important area of UN police activity.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Matheba noted “traditional conceptions of security were parochial and often aligned with the state and military. Accordingly, peace was synonymous with an absence of war as focused primarily on war and war machines rather than on non-military threats to security” (Matheba, 2005, pp. 49–50). Thus, “Mahlako expands the discourse around security as follows: human security also reinforces human dignity. People’s horizons extend far beyond survival to matters of love, culture and faith. Protecting core of activities and abilities is essential for human security, but that alone is not enough. Human security must also aim at developing the capabilities of individuals and communities to make informed choices and to act on behalf of causes and interests in many spheres of life as builds on people’s efforts; strengthens what they do for themselves” (Mahlako, 2005, p. 5). The AU’s Common African Defense and Security Policy defines human security as “encompassing both the traditional state-centric notion of survival of the state and its protection by the military from external aggression, as well as the non-military notion which is informed by the new international environment and the high incidence of intra-state conflict”. (African Union, 2005, p. 4). Sudan security should look beyond safety measures in terms of armed conflicts, to safety measures that ensure provision of the basic needs of ordinary civilians, taking into account their human dignity and acknowledging their human rights (Cawthra, 2004, p. 30). Since the establishment of the UN system, traditional peacekeeping deployments involving large military observers and forces were employed to restore peace, especially during inter-state wars and conflicts. UN and the international community have had to contend with complex emergencies, employing multidimensional and multidisciplinary peace mission deployments, not only to keep the peace, but to establish foundations for post-conflict peace building and reconstruction. Mlotha explains the paradigm of complex multidimensional peace missions as “addressing a wide range of social, humanitarian, political and legal challenges in order to achieve a comprehensive settlement of disputes” (Mlotha, unpublished, p. 10). The UN should be given the mandate to use maximum force to restore peace and security. “Human Rights Watch noted Khartoum has feigned lame efforts to hold those responsible to account. The climate of impunity is nothing new for Sudan. Impunity for massive abuses of human rights committed by the army and ethnic militias in the separate twenty-one year civil war in southern Sudan undoubtedly contributed to the use of similar tactics in Darfur” (hrw.org, 2005).

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The objectives of the study implies to the understanding and recognizing of acceptable root causes that Sudan faces in lieu to police services of the region and the causal notion pointing to UN’s role in building police services that are effective and desirable for peace keeping missions in South Sudan. To integrate salient points as part of the literature review and the organization of important information as provided by research based knowledge and application of several principles and themes in order to achieve evidenced based discussion and analysis of the literature. To gather and collate informative ideas and concepts focusing on the keywords, Sudan, Police and the United Nations and create and execute appropriate methodology tool in form of case survey assimilation stance.

HYPOTHESIS

H1: United Nations bring about positive role for building police services in South Sudan through humanitarian process and awareness of peace conflicts

H2: United Nations bring about negative role for building police services in South Sudan through humanitarian process and awareness of peace conflicts

H3: Police services in South Sudan has positive impact on the UN role in such peace functions

H4: Police services in South Sudan has negative impact on the UN role in such peace functions

 

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The research methodology will be in form of case study approach looking into secondary resources that gives precise viewpoint towards Sudan, its police services built up and UN roles about the matter. This adheres to press releases that deal to the relevance of key assumptions in research as well as several reviewed articles and journals that in a way focuses on Sudan’s police and the United Nations respectively. Case study assessment and evaluation is imperative and this can be realized by means of case study survey methodology, this will be in statement formation and will have a five point response ratios as supported by the Likert scaling approach (see below formation for sample survey statement draft).

 

 

No

STATEMENTS

 

 

 

 

 

1

Sudanese nationalist struggle in the south was fragmented in terms of philosophy, outlook and projection about the envisaged independent Sudan

1

2

3

4

5

2

Bringing together expert practitioners from within the UN system donor governments and independent experts, the workshop aimed to achieve  clear understanding of what community-based policing entails and how it fits within conflict management strategy

 

1

2

3

4

5

3

The police are the most visible institution of the security sector and their reform is vital for lasting human security

 

1

2

3

4

5

 

G. Matheba, South Africa’s Contribution to the security structures of southern Africa, S. P. Rankhumise and A. Mahlako (eds) Defence, Militarism, Peace building and Human Security in Africa, Africa Institute of South Africa, Pretoria, 2005, pp. 49–50.
A. Mahlako, Human security as a locomotive for expanding the horizons of sustainable development in Africa, Rankhumise and Mahlako (eds) Defence, Militarism, Peace building and Human Security in Africa, Africa Institute of South Africa, Pretoria, 2005, p. 5.
www.africaunion.org/news_Events/2ND%20ASSEMBLY/Declaration%20on%20aComm.Af%20Def%20Sec.pdf (28 October 2005), p. 4.
G. Cawthra, A conceptual framework for regional security, S. Field (ed) Peace in Africa: Towards a collaborative security regime, Institute for Global Dialogue, Johannesburg, 2004, p. 30.
H. Mlotha, Background to United Nations and African Peacekeeping in F. B. Aboagye and V. Kent (eds) SARPCCO Generic UN Police Officers Course, Institute for Security Studies, Pretoria, (unpublished). p. 10.

http://hrw.org/english/docs/2005/01/01/sudan9971.htm, (30 November 2005).

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