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02/27/2012

Research Report on Perception and Customer Satisfaction towards Internet Banking of Wing Hang Bank of Hong Kong


 

                                                 HC2022   Marketing Research                        

 

Research Report on

Perception and Customer Satisfaction towards

Internet Banking of Wing Hang Bank of Hong Kong

 

 

 

Introduction

The existence of the internet as part of the information technology has paved the way to different changes on the way products and services are provided. The utilization of the internet is transforming high-tech marketing while various industries have been attempting to use it as part of their business approach (Kalakota & Winston, 1999). Industries that adopted the use of this new technology is the financial institution, particularly banking. The increasing competition among bank forces them to develop new technology and tools to help them to stay competitive or even survive in the market and to serve the changing demand of their customers.  Internet banking is an example of the latest significant technology, considered a revolution in banking industry, since the development of the ATM.

Primarily, the main goal of this paper is to analyze the perception of the customers with regards to the internet banking in Wing Hang Bank in Hong Kong. 

Background and Current Situation

Internet banking has emerged for at least two crucial reasons. Firstly, it serves as a new alternative channel other than traditional branch network for customers to contact banks. Nowadays, more and more customers, especially younger ones who are quicker to accept new technology, are accessing remote channels-telephone banking; computer banking and other virtual banking-to transact their financial affairs. These on-line customers demand even more control over their personal finances and value “anytime, anyplace, anywhere” customized access to financial services (Jordan & Katz, 1999).

The other reason for the emergence of Internet banking is the increase of electronic commerce, which generates a corresponding demand of electronic payment processes offered by financial institutions and banks. Furthermore, other follow-up activities such as viewing account balances and transaction records, paying bills, transferring funds between accounts, and credit card soled transactions need to be processed online (Bielsi, 2001). Banking on the Internet is not the same as banking via online service. Internet banking allows customers to conduct banking business directly from their Web-enabled computers. By maintaining a direct relationship with end users via the Web, banks can offer additional services and provide a personal feeling to the interface without seeking the cooperation of a software company. Online services require customers to purchase proprietary software, store data on their computers, and back up needed information for specific services (Winter, 2001).

Purpose of the Research

Generally, the purpose of the study is to conduct a research study to determine the perception of the customer in line with internet banking. The research will specifically determine the perception of the customers regarding the concept of internet banking and attempt to determine the customer satisfaction level for the use of internet banking. Moreover, this study would review relevant literature on the same topic.

Objectives

  1. To measure customer perception, loyalty and performance level in using the Bank's Internet Banking services
  2. To measure the satisfaction level of existing offered Internet Banking services
  3. To understand its strengths and weaknesses through respondents' experience in using its Internet Banking service
  4. To identify areas for improvement
  5. To recommend initiatives and means for enhancement

Secondary Data

Many more banks are moving to or developing Internet banking since they foresee many benefits. Major advantages of this channel include: economic advantage from lower cost, enhancement of customer satisfaction, internet banking as a tool for mass customization, development of non-core business. The first benefit of internet banking to banks is it provides economic advantage from lower cost. In the world of Internet banking, there is no big difference in cost between serving one or one million customers (Bielski, 2001). This enables banks to offer low-cost, high value-added financial service to their customers. A study by Booz Allen & Hamilton indicates that ordinary bank running costs account for 50 – 60 % of revenue, while running costs of Internet banking is estimated as 15-20% of revenue. In addition, the study points out that the cost per transaction is estimated at $ 1.08 for a branch, $ 0.54 for telephone, $ 0.28 for PC, and $ 0.13 for Internet.

Another advantage of internet banking is it enhances customer satisfaction. Internet banking can remove the traditional branch limitation by allowing customers to access their banks 24 hours and 7 days a week with little or no waiting time regardless of customers’ location. This can create convenience for customers, thus their satisfaction toward banking services. The survey of American Banking and Gallop Poll indicates has customers’ loyalty to their own banks partly comes from convenience in contact with banks (England et al, 1998). These days, customers tend to be multi-channel transactors; hence, banks have to allow customers to access banks through various channels depending on their convenience. These channels include branch outlets, ATMs, telephone banking, kiosk screen phone, mobile phone and PC web-based banking. If banks cannot catch up with the customers’ trend, they may fail to retain their customers’ loyalty and lose them to competitors providing desired services.

Internet banking allows banks to collect customers’ preference, needs, and the propensity to use certain services. With this valuable information, banks can employ one-to-one marketing to provide information and customized products and services, which are relevant or suited to customers as well as create better-perceived value of banking services in the minds of customers. Internet banking enables banks to expand their services into non-traditional banking areas. For instance, many banks have already moved into, or are in the process of moving into, insurance and stock brokerage. As many banks have the physical and computing infrastructure in place to develop these products and services, an Internet site can serve as an ideal shop front for this service (Horsfield, 2000). However, the move to non-core business depends on the rules and regulation in each country

Internet banking shows sign of growth in term of both banks providing this kind of service and on-line users. A survey of 1,000 banks reveals that more than 50% of these banks are already providing or implementing full service Internet banking to their customers, whereas, most of the rest will soon offer the service. These banks give reasons that they do not want to be left behind competitors. Moreover, banks hope to prevent customer migration and to attract new customers (Day, 2000). The number of Internet banking users in 2001 is expected to be 7.25 million in Europe and 6.8 million in the US (Couch & Parker, 2000). Furthermore, it is stated that customers’ adoption in the US is in the chasm phase. The chasm is the gap that occurs between initial adoption by technology enthusiasts and the mainstream market that is more pragmatic. In other words, Internet banking service is expanding to be adopted by early majority (Deyoung, 2001).

            Wing Hang Bank was established by the late Mr Y.K. Fung in Guangzhou as a money changing enterprise in 1937. After World War II, the company re-established itself in Hong Kong having only 19 staffs. By then the company continue to emerge and have sustained growth. Because of this, the Bank was granted a banking license in 1960.  Upon the adherence of the company to continue to serve millions of people locally and internationally, the company considers the context of e-banking or internet banking. Accordingly, the e-banking services of Wing Hang Bank goes beyond limitation of location and time to provide the latest news and information, In addition, through the use of internet, phone or ATM, the client may enjoy the flexibility and convenience of personal financial management anywhere, anytime (Wing Hang Bank, 2009).

            Since the company is providing internet banking services, it is important that this report will be considered to investigate the customer satisfaction level of the company’s internet banking services for the personal banking needs of the clients.

Methodology

To be able to gather or collate pertinent information that focuses on the perception and the satisfaction level for improvement, primary data will be collected from the existing internet banking clients. Specifically, the respondents considered are those adult internet banking customers. Simple random sampling was conducted drawing the sample of total 600 clients from the customer database system. However, only 483 clients have returned their completed survey, hence, the researcher considered 483 respondents.

            This research only used self-administered questionnaire which was sent to the target respondents with stamped return envelope.  The researcher had also provided advance notification through email to notify the clients that a questionnaire will be sent to them which they have to complete within two weeks and remind return back either by mail or fax.  The researcher provided simple freebies for respondents, who took part in the study as a token of appreciation,

The survey-questionnaire consists of 5 main sections. The first section (Q.1) included the frequency of usage of internet banking. Section two question (Q. 2) included the client’s perception in the quality of Internet Banking services in general.  Section three (Q.3 ranged from a to h) consisted statements on identifying level of satisfaction towards different offered Internet Banking services and its attributes.  Section four question (Q.4) consists of the respondents' perception and attitude regarding its Internet services and their level of loyalty.  Section five questions (Q. 5) consists demographic data of the clients to facilitating analysis of segmentation as well as opportunities of marketing strategies.  This survey questionnaire also uses Likert Scaling (Strongly agree to Strongly disagree and Very satisfied to Very dissatisfied) for measuring respondents' view on quality and satisfaction level.

The elements of questionnaire and the purpose of data collection:

Table 1

 

Elements:

Purpose:

Q.1

Frequency of Usage

(measure by nominal scale)

To understand the average usage of existing customers

Q.2

Perceived quality of Internet Banking services

(measure by Likert Scaling)

To understand the perceived quality in whole

Q.3

Satisfaction level towards various services and its attributes:

Ø  Account inquiry

Ø  Transfer

Ø  Investment

Ø  Stock Trading

Ø  Insurance

Ø  Credit Card

Ø  Loans

Ø  Other non-transactional online services

(Measure by Likert Scaling)

To understand the level of satisfaction towards various services and its key attributes, facilitating to

  1. To understand strengths and weaknesses through respondents' experience in using Internet Banking services

  2. To identify areas for improvement

  3. To recommend initiatives and means for enhancement

Q.4

Perception/attitude towards using its Internet Banking services

(Measure by Likert Scaling)

To understand their perception to the services and to measure the level of loyalty

Q.5

Demographic Data:

Ø  Age

Ø  Gender

Ø  Marital status

Ø  Education

Ø  Occupation

Ø  Income

(Measure by nominal scale)

To understand the demographic information of existing users facilitating target segmentation and determinations on product enhancement and marketing strategies.

 

Table 2

The Five-point Likert Scale

Scale

Range

Interpretation

5

4.50 – 5.00

Very Satisfied/ Strongly Agree

4

3.50 – 4.49

Satisfied/Agree

3

2.50 – 3.49

Neutral

2

1.50 – 2.49

Dissatisfied/ Disagree

1

0.00-1.49

Very Dissatisfied/Strongly Disagree

 

 

LIMITATIONS

In this research study, there are some limitations to be considered, specifically with the entire question in one single research. Herein, the research can only focus on investigating the areas of key attributes of emerging offered services in the study.

 

FINDINGS

The data used in this research were collected from February 14 to February 28, 2009. The number of returned valid questionnaire was only questionnaire was 483 comprising 80.5% response rate.

 

Q.1      Frequency of Usage

Table 3

Frequency of Usage

Frequency

Respondents

In %

1 or less

40

8.28%

2-3 times per week

130

26.92%

4-5 times per week

160

33.13%

More than 5 times per month

153

31.68%

Total

483

100%

 

            Based on the answers of the respondents, majority of the respondents are using internet banking services for 4-5 times a week comprising 33.13% (160) of the total respondents, followed by 31.68% of respondents that used internet banking for more than 5 times a week. The result indicates that majority of the respondents relies on the use of internet banking for their banking purposes.

 

Q.2      Perceived quality of Internet Banking Services

Table 4

Attributes:

5

very satisfied

4

 

satisfied

3

 

Neutral

2

 

dissatisfied

1

very dissatisfied

Mean Score

Interpretation

Ease of navigation

102

361

20

0

0

4.17

Satisfied

Page setup and menu flow

71

313

89

10

0

3.92

Satisfied

Content and information

25

256

191

11

0

3.61

Satisfied

Speed of page loading

25

225

219

14

0

3.54

Satisfied

Data security

25

241

200

17

0

3.57

Satisfied

Stability of system/server

108

325

50

0

0

4.12

Satisfied

 

As can be seen in the analysis of the collated data, majority of the respondents were satisfied with the quality, specifically in line with the area of ease of navigation as well as the stability of the system/server which is tabulated with the highest scores 4.17 and 4.12 respectively. The next is page setup and menu flow with a mean of 3.92, followed by the content and information with a mean of 3.61.  The next is the data security which has a mean of 3.57 and the lowest mean score is speed of page loading which is tabulated with 3.56.  The findings indicates that the respondents or the clients are satisfied with the overall quality of internet banking service, but more studies and improvement projects is still needed to enhance the relatively low score in the area speed of page loading.

 

Q.3      Satisfaction level towards various services and its attributes

 

Table 5

Account Inquiry Services

a.  Account Inquiry Services

5

Very

Satisfied

4

 

Satisfied

3

 

Neutral

2

 

Dissatisfied

1

Very

Dissatisfied

Mean

Score

Interpretation

Ease of use/navigation

73

261

133

10

6

3.80

satisfied

Display of content and information

6

15

360

90

12

2.82

Neutral

Period of transaction history

10

243

217

7

6

3.51

Satisfied

Overall performance

10

311

136

16

10

3.61

Satisfied

 

Total respondents: 483

The overall satisfaction scores with mean 3.61

Majority of the respondents who took part in the study were satisfied with the ease of use/navigation with 3.80.  The satisfaction level of display of content and information’ is under average with weighted mean score of 2.82. This indicates that the participants are generally satisfied with this service, but they are significantly not satisfied with the display of content and information in terms of account inquiry services.

 

Table 6

Transfer Services

 

b. Transfer Services

5

Very

Satisfied

4

 

Satisfied

3

 

Neutral

2

 

Dissatisfied

1

Very

Dissatisfied

Mean

Score

Interpretation

Ease of use/navigation

102

356

15

6

4

4.13

Satisfied

Display of content and information

40

341

86

11

5

3.83

Satisfied

Processing speed of transaction

20

165

283

7

8

3.38

Neutral

Overall performance

38

414

13

12

6

3.96

Satisfied

 

Total respondents: 483

The overall satisfaction scores with mean 3.96

Majority of the participants were satisfied with the ease of use/navigation with mean 4.13 and then the level of their satisfaction is followed by display of content and information with mean 3.83.  The lowest mean is 3.38 came from Processing speed of transaction.  Such indicate that the respondents were generally satisfied in terms of transfer of services in the internet banking.

 

Table 7

Investment Services

c. Investment Services

5

Very

Satisfied

4

 

Satisfied

3

 

Neutral

2

 

Dissatisfied

1

Very

Dissatisfied

Mean

Score

Interpretation

Ease of use/navigation

69

156

15

6

4

4.12

Satisfied

Display of content and information

47

141

46

11

5

3.86

Satisfied

Processing speed of transaction

20

125

90

7

8

3.57

Satisfied

Market review/financial news and tools of risk analysis

41

176

15

12

6

3.94

Satisfied

Overall performance

59

166

15

6

4

4.08

Satisfied

 

Total respondents: 250

The overall satisfaction scores with mean 4.08

            The total number of respondents for this part is only 250 since not all clients have availed the investment service of the company. Majority of the respondents are showing their satisfaction in terms of the investment services.  The respondents are satisfied with ease of use/navigation, display of content and information, processing speed of transaction, market review/financial news and tools of risk analysis.

 

 

Table 8

Stock Trading Services

d. Stock Trading Services

5

Very

Satisfied

4

 

Satisfied

3

 

Neutral

2

 

Dissatisfied

1

Very

Dissatisfied

Mean

Score

Interpretation

Ease of use/navigation

65

41

25

15

4

3.99

Satisfied

Real-time quote/instant financial news and analysis tools

41

80

11

8

10

3.89

Satisfied

Processing speed of transaction

42

47

5

30

26

3.33

Neutral

Overall performance

38

60

30

12

10

3.69

Satisfied

 

Total respondents: 150

The overall satisfaction scores with mean 3.69

Majority of the respondents were satisfied in terms of the ease of Use/navigation, the mean is 3.99. However, the score of the Processing speed of transaction is low with weighted average of 3.33.  This indicates that the clients are not fully satisfied with the Processing speed of transaction. As this type of service is considered as one of the sources of profit of the bank by charging handling fee and commission, it is essential that this Processing speed of transaction should be enhanced so as to make clients become satisfied with this service and promote the numbers of trades.

Table 9

Insurance Services

 

e. Insurance Services

5

Very

Satisfied

4

 

Satisfied

3

 

Neutral

2

 

Dissatisfied

1

Very

Dissatisfied

Mean

Score

Interpretation

Ease of use/navigation

66

43

10

19

42

3.40

Neutral

 

Display of content and information

62

48

22

29

19

3.58

Satisfied

Processing speed of application

44

56

15

32

33

3.26

Neutral

Overall performance

47

82

11

16

24

3.62

Satisfied

 

Total respondents: 180

The overall satisfaction scores with mean 3.62

the clients who participated in this survey questionnaire, are satisfied with the display of content and information  (3.58) but shows neutral perception in the satisfaction level in terms of ease of use/navigation and processing speed of application only with mean 3.40 and 3.26 respectively. This indicates that the clients are generally satisfied with the whole service, but they take the advantage of quick time of online application approach.

 

Table 10

Credit card Services

 

f. Credit card Services

5

Very

Satisfied

4

 

Satisfied

3

 

Neutral

2

 

Dissatisfied

1

Very

Dissatisfied

Mean

Score

Interpretation

Ease of use/navigation

79

146

15

6

4

4.16

Satisfied

Display of content and information

57

131

36

21

5

3.86

Satisfied

Processing speed of application

50

125

60

7

8

3.81

Satisfied

Overall performance

51

166

15

12

6

3.98

Satisfied

 

Total respondents: 250

The overall satisfaction scores with mean 3.98

Majority of the respondents who answered the question in terms of credit card services shows their satisfaction provided by Wing Hang Bank. This indicates that this service of the company is able to meet the expectations of the clients who are using or availing it.

 

Table 11

Loans Services

 

g. Loans Services

 

5

Very

Satisfied

4

 

Satisfied

3

 

Neutral

2

 

Dissatisfied

1

Very

Dissatisfied

Mean

Score

Interpretation

Ease of use/navigation

49

46

15

6

4

4.08

Satisfied

Display of content and information

35

72

6

2

5

4.08

Satisfied

Processing speed of application

60

35

10

7

8

4.10

Satisfied

Overall performance

41

62

5

6

6

4.05

Satisfied

 

Total respondents: 120

The overall satisfaction scores with mean 4.05

Majority of the respondents perceived that in this loan service of the company, the Processing speed of application score is high with 4.10 this indicates that the clients are satisfied with the online application speed for loaning.  Most respondents are showing satisfaction of this kind of services.

 

h.         Other services (includes cheque book order, statement request, change of address,       download of forms)

Table 12

Other Services

h. Other services

5

Very

Satisfied

4

 

Satisfied

3

 

Neutral

2

 

Dissatisfied

1

Very

Dissatisfied

Mean

Score

Interpretation

Ease of use/navigation

133

261

73

10

6

4.05

Satisfied

Display of content and information

360

15

6

90

12

4.29

Satisfied

Processing speed of application

210

243

17

7

6

4.33

Satisfied

Overall performance

114

311

32

16

9

4.05

Satisfied

 

Total respondents: 483

The overall satisfaction scores with mean 4.05

All areas have a mean higher than the average which shows that majority of the clients are satisfied with the overall services of the company in terms of cheque book order, statement request, change of address,         download of forms. The processing speed of application is 4.33 which show that the respondents are satisfied with the online application speed.

 

Based on the given analysis, the overall performance as perceived by the clients were compared and it has been found out that investment service has the highest score on the ‘overall performance’, the mean is 4.08. Nonetheless, the score of account inquiry is the lowest with 3.61 but it is still above average which means that the services offered by the bank satisfied the clients.

Figure 1

In terms of the comparisons of the usage rate on each service, ‘Account Inquiry’ and ‘Transfer’ and “Other services’ are the most used services of the respondents, with all the respondents who participated have been using the service.

 

Only about half 50% of the respondents used the services of ‘Investment service’ and ‘credit card service’.  The ‘stock trading services’, ‘Insurance services ’ and ‘loan services’ are the least used services, they have 31.06%, 37.27% and 24.84% respectively.

 

Figure 2

 

4. Perception/Attitude toward using Internet banking services

 

Table 12

 

 

5

Strongly agree

4

 

Agree

3

 

Neutral

2

 

Disagree

1

Strongly disagree

Mean Score

Interpretation

Internet banking is more convenient than traditional face to face banking

63

112

162

143

3

3.18

 

Neutral

 

I use Internet banking more than traditional face to face banking

71

253

100

54

5

3.69

Agree

I will keep to use your Internet Banking

167

212

65

39

0

4.05

Agree

I will recommend my family/friend(s) to use your Internet Banking

202

214

65

2

0

4.28

Agree

 

Figure 3

 

Based on the answers provided by the respondents, the clients remain neutral with their responds on Internet banking is more convenient than traditional face to face banking (mean score is 3.18).  The respondents agreed that using Internet banking more than traditional face to face banking (mean score is 3.69).  In this regard, most respondents agreed to use internet banking in their banking needs. In addition, the customer also agreed that they will continue to use internet banking with the mean of 4.05 and they will recommend its use to their family/friends with a mean of 4.28.

 

5.         Demographic Data

Findings of Gender, Age and Marital status are summarized in the following table:

Table 13

Summarize table for Sex, Age and Marital Status

 

Respondents

Percentage

Gender

Female

286

59.21%

Male

197

40.79%

Age

18-30

125

25.88%

31-40

183

37.89%

41-50

92

19.05%

over 50

83

17.18%

Marital Status

Single

293

60.66%

Married

190

39.34%

 

Most of the respondents who took part in this report are female comprising 59321% out of 483 respondents and the remaining are male customers.  In terms of marital status, most of the respondents in this study are single comprising 60.66% of the total respondents. Majority of the respondents belongs to the age range of 31-40 comprising 37.89% (183) of the total respondents, followed by 18-30 (25.88%) and 41-50 (19.05%).   It shows that the average age of the clients are younger to middle-aged or young adult.

 

d.         Education level

Table 14

Education Level

Respondents

In %

Primary

5

1.04%

Secondary

156

32.30%

University

263

54.45%

Post-graduated

59

12.22%

 

The result of the analysis showed that the respondents/clients had a high level of education in which 54.45% of them had a tertiary level and32.30% had a secondary level. There is also a significant number of respondents who belongs to post-graduated comprising 12.22% of the total respondents.

e.         Occupation

Figure 5

 

In the study, 25% of respondents are white collar and professionals.   On one hand, the students take up 18%, Technical take up 13% and Self-employed takes up 12%. This may indicated that most of the users are busy in their job or work and they are willing to consider online transaction to save time and to avoid waiting time on queuing.  In addition, Wing Hang Bank should take care of the segment of Self-employed on more SME financial solutions.

 

f.          Income level

Table 15

 

Income range

Respondents

In %

Under $10,000

45

9.32%

$10,000-20,000

256

53.00%

$20,001-30,000

121

25.05%

$30,001-40,000

25

5.18%

$40,001-50,000

23

4.76%

Over $50,000

13

2.69%

 

As can be seen in the table above, 53% of the total respondents can be considered to belong in low to middle class, where income ranges $10,000-20,000. 25.05% of the total respondents are earning $20,001-30,000. the result shows that a potential segment for income above Under $10,000comprising 9.32% of the segment.

            Based on the result of the demographic profile, it shows an essential hint of hidden potential of the current users. Wing Hang Bank perhaps needs to promote and design customer-oriented products and services specifically on financial and wealth management in this market segment.

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

The main goal of this paper is to assess the perception and level of satisfaction of the respondents with regards to the internet banking services of Wing Hang Bank. The clients perceived that internet banking can be a convenient channel to conduct banking transaction than the conventional one and most clients are willing to recommend this with their family and friends. This proved the hypothesis that internet banking has rooms for improvement and enhancement to be more appealing and attractive for the target market and to make them use internet banking than the traditional approach for bank transactions.

The results of this study further indicates high average weekly usage rate among young market segments  with average mid-level income and most are holding professional and students. To be able to capture these market segments, more customer-oriented products and services online are recommended tailor made this market segments.

            Moreover, this also indicates that the online users are includes to utilize banking facilities like as account inquiry, transfer of funds and other services.  Only significant numbers of users are considering the use of online investment and stock trading services. With this result, it can be considered that there are rooms for enhancement to attract more clients for online transaction or internet banking.  The least utilized service is loans service whereas the lowest satisfaction service is account inquiry service.

Further research should be conducted to examine the factors affecting or influencing users to adapt on those services. This is essential to identify reason behind the low usage and low satisfaction for these services. Furthermore, the findings of key attributes of offered services by the banking industry have shown the clear picture of strengths and weaknesses areas to determine rooms for improvement and enhancement. 

                                                                                     

As can be seen in the result of this study, it is recommended that customer satisfaction survey should be conducted regularly to sharpen competitive position and advantage and keep pace with the trends in the market in today's dynamic environments.  Accordingly, with the overall satisfaction of the clients in the online services of the company, it is recommended that the bank should consider research on analyzing the needs on requiring less front-line employees, facility expenses as well as the potential to decrease operation cost.

Reference

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Couch, K., & Parker, D.L. (2000).  Net Interest Grows as Banks Rush Online. Southwest Economy, issue 2, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas

Day, K. (2000).  Web-Only Banks Start to Get Real. Washington Post.

Deyoung, Robert. (2001).  The financial performance of pure play Internet banks. Economic Perspectives, Vol. 25; p 60.

England, Kori L., Furst, K., Nolle, D.E. & Robertson, D. (1998).  Banking Over the Internet. Quarterly Journal, 17, 4,

Horsfield, Richard (2000).  Shaping the future of online financial services. The Banker,

Jordan, John & Katz, J. (1999).  Banking in the Age of Information Technology. Regional Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston 9(2).

Kalakota, R. & Winston, A. (1997) Electronic Commerce: a Manager’s Guide. Addison-Wesley Longman Inc.

Wing Hang Bank (2009). Online available at http://www.whbhk.com/. Retrieve April 3, 2009.

Winter, Mike. (2001). Straight Talk about Internet Banking. ABA Banking Journal. Vol. 93; 12.  p77.

 

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