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02/16/2012

Research Proposal On Marketing Strategies And Paradigms: A Contribution To Promote A Brand In International Market


 

RESEARCH PROPOSAL 

 

WORKING TITLE

Marketing Strategies and Paradigms: A Contribution to Promote a Brand in International Market

RESEARCH QUESTION

  1. What is the correlation between effective marketing strategy and effective marketing paradigms for brand promotion in the international market?
  2. What composes of market strategies and paradigms from such internationalization base? 

RESEARCH PURPOSE

The purpose of this research proposal is to provide comprehensive account to preliminary literatures dealing to market strategies and paradigms catering to brand promos, application to international market stature. Another is to be able to provide answer to core question posted below:  

How marketing strategies and paradigm contribution effectively upon promoting a brand in international market? Give details and examples (literature based) This research will be exploring imperative tenets required for business driven organization utilizing effective market strategy and paradigm through branding and promotion domain thus, examining of critical underpinnings and information implied by strategies and paradigm orientation within the international market.  The research aims to prove that effective application of marketing strategy and its related paradigms will outcome to successful process towards branding and promotion patterns of business cycles.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Introduction

The evolutions of branding research and practice have identified the gradual proliferation of heterogeneous approaches to brand valuation and management (Low and Fullerton, 1994; de Chernatony and Dall’Olmo Riley, 1998) within marketing research to generate confusion and impede accumulation, comparison and integration of findings managers and researchers confront the challenge of coherently describing and managing brands among multitude of discourses, concepts and methods. Thus, confronting upon proposing integrated approach to brand management as well as the adoption of paradigm thinking (Burrel, 1996; Kuhn, 1996) in order to identify market perspectives. Paradigms, refereed as entire constellation of beliefs, values, techniques as shared by members of given community” (Kuhn, 1996, p. 175), and paradigm thinking have been explored in diverse fields such as those within services management (Wright, 1998). Brand management paradigms constitute organization’s portfolio of implicit assumptions, collective beliefs, values and techniques concerning brand management., “the way in which managers [in a firm] conceptualize the business and make critical resource allocation decisions” (Bettis and Prahalad, 1995, p. 7).

 

Branding promotion in international market

Although there has been certain plethora of publications on international growth strategies of companies, the role of branding only warrants limited comment from most authors. Most of the case studies already referred to devote most attention to the scale and direction of international activity. Indeed, in the case study textbook by McGoldrick (1994) the two case studies on Carrefour illustrate this point. Pellegrini's (1994) case on the development of the retail brand focuses entirely on retail branding in France, whereas Burt's (1994) study on the internationalization of innovations include brief commentary on Carrefour's transference of retail branding expertise into Spain, Brazil and Argentina. However, most studies on retail branding in an international context focus on the grocery sector, from broad based monographs on European markets (Martensen, 1992; Laaksonen, 1994) to more specific comparative country analyses (Fernie and Pierrel, 1996; GleÂmet and Mira, 1993). Research will provide opportunity not only to augment research studies on internationalization but also offer unique contribution to the international branding literature.

The Paradigm Shift in Marketing  

From management point of view the Four Ps may have been helpful at one time, at least for marketers of consumer packaged goods. The use of various means of competition became more organized. However, such four Ps were never applicable to all markets and to all types of marketing situations. The development of alternative marketing theories discussed in previous sections of this article demonstrates that even from management perspective, the marketing mix and its Four Ps became problem. However, in the bulk of textbooks and in much of the on-going marketing research this paradigm is still strong today. In a standard marketing text, services marketing, industrial marketing and international marketing, for example, are touched on in few paragraphs or they may be presented in chapter of their own. Researchers and marketing managers are also constrained by the simplistic nature of the Four Ps. The victims are marketing theory and customers. However, what marketing deserves is new perspectives, which are market oriented and less manipulative, where the customer indeed is the focal point as suggested by marketing concept (Cravens, 1998).

Promotion Effect and Brand Positioning

Several studies have shown that promotions of national brands yield more effect than those of store brands (Allenby and Rossi 1991; Blattberg and Wisniewski 1989). However, the evolution of price quality data available from reports seems to reveal reduction of the quality gap between store brands and national brands, while price differences remain substantial. Simultaneously, the share of private label brands has increased, to study whether national brands may easily attract consumers from store brands through promotions, whereas store brands are relatively ineffective in attracting consumers from national brands by such means. There maybe asymmetric promotion effect in favor of quality price brands if and only if the quality gap between the brands is sufficiently large in comparison with the price gap, direction of promotion asymmetry is not unconditional. Promotion effectiveness is increasing in this variable. Second, cross promotion effects between two brands depend on their distance in the price/quality quadrant. This variable impacts promotion effectiveness negatively and symmetrically for any pair of brands. Thus, positioning advantage and brand distance are orthogonal components of brand positioning, irrespective of the degree of correlation between available price and quality levels in the market.  The need to investigate role of brand positioning in explaining cross promotion effects using variables, positioning advantage and brand distance from readily available data on price and quality positioning after obtaining estimates, measure promotion effectiveness by estimating choice share changes in response to price discount, using choice model that does not contain any information about quality/price ratios.

Brand Management Paradigms

The brand centrality dimension reflects the extent to which a firm’s brand portfolio provides the underlying leitmotif for strategic formation and the development of marketing activities. This dimension runs from a tactical orientation (Kapferer, 1992), where brands are conceptualized and managed as tactical instruments appended to a product, to a brand orientation “in which the processes of the organization revolve around the creation, development and protection of brand identity with the aim of achieving lasting competitive advantages in the form of brands” (Urde, 1999, pp. 117-118). Brands are managed as central platforms, in the form of guiding vision and values, and core expressions, in the form of particular marketing mix configurations, of an organization’s strategic intent (Kapferer, 1992; Prahalad and Ramaswamy, 2000).  Indeed, reviews of marketing strategy implementation issue in an era of weaker marketing paradigm contrasts traditional sequential flow models of implementation with the “strategy implementation dichotomy” and leads to the emergence of procedural view of implementation. The procedural view clarifies the underlying behavioral and organizational factors that build strategy implementation capabilities. These underlying factors are at risk from marketing paradigm. The weakening of the marketing paradigm is discussed in terms of the downsizing and disappearance of the marketing function, but more fundamentally in the loss of strategic influence for marketing in the face of competing management paradigms such as the lean enterprise and lean thinking mechanisms (Prahalad and Ramaswamy, 2000).  In addition, the organization paradigm determines understanding of brands, the process and content of brand strategy, potential contribution to marketing based advantage. The increasing recognition, by managers and academics, of significance of brands accentuate importance of validating and refining the premises and models underlying marketing strategies and paradigms for brand promotions. There has been accumulating evidence that the marketing life cycle (Piercy, 1985; McDonald, 1994) is forcing many companies to confront anew the issue of the role to be played by the conventional marketing department in the corporation of the future. It has become increasingly apparent that the question of marketing organization extends far beyond the mainly administrative issues of internal structure (McDonald, 1994). Marketing’s role in the organization as fundamental customer-driven process (McKenna, 1991) retains important implications for structuring and positioning marketing. Marketing organization has become fundamental strategic issue concerned with intra organizational relationships and inter-organizational alliances, and the management of critical boundary spanning environmental interfaces. Kohli and Jaworski (Vol. 54 No. 2, pp. 1-18) produced such widely cited conceptualization of market orientation, resting on the notion that market orientation involves the organization wide dissemination of information and developing appropriate responses related to current and future customer needs and preferences. In fact, there has been one defining variable of the nature, sources and amount of intelligence and information that flows is the structure of the organization.

METHODOLOGY

The research will commence with the analysis and evaluation of business marketing analysis and such performance in accordance to brand promotion strategies and paradigms created and executed as the latter has been selected as ample research tool and information source as it assimilates to primary data used by business in noting in effectiveness towards marketing strategy and paradigm of a brand promotion.  The research will proceed to critically evaluate literature information of research in focus thus, recognizing of secondary resources from techniques like, journal article selections for critiqued based observations, case study approach – analysis of inquiry and interpretation of several related studies and marketing oriented research routes as one useful tool for obtaining salient data (market strategy and paradigm for brand promotions, brand management paradigms, noting in several brands within the market)

 

In analyzing marketing strategy and paradigm for brand promotions and investigating literature posits in order to answer questions mentioned, several ways and aspects will be applied and be utilized to draw recommendations and essential conclusions placing weight to market strategy, paradigms, brand, promotions and market. Furthermore, new directions for marketing strategy will have to be proposed, aimed at overcoming current limitations of marketing theory and its paradigm and the need to offer integrated strategic marketing planning approach along with effective branding and promotion application as well as effective process with an agenda for research on international market stature. The many challenges confronting organizations in the contemporary business environment are altering sales and marketing strategies, processes and organizational designs. Various paradigms are offered by academics and executives for coping with the opportunities and threats of twenty-first century. Marketing strategy paradigms provide sales and marketing decision makers with important conceptual frameworks and perspectives. Importantly, these strategies are closely linked to other key dimensions of contemporary management thought and practice. Examining literature based influence of such branding promotions, strategic relationships, market orientation, customer value, distinctive competencies and change placed towards marketing strategy.  The paradigms of marketing is now expanding to incorporate negotiated exchanges with internal and external coalitions in the pursuit of competitive advantage as there explore implications of broad paradigm for setting priorities in research and theory development in the international marketing. The priorities build on conceptual and methodological strengths within marketing as perspective undertaken contributes to the continuing dialogue about the appropriate role for marketing function in contributing to brand promotions in the market arena.

Even though research perspectives are adopted in emerging conceptualizations of international marketing, little attention were given to process effectiveness in marketing strategy and paradigm research. Thus, to utilize exploratory case research approach in conjunction with critical analysis, the need to trace emergent processes in marketing strategy formation and identify effective paradigm cycles. Recent developments in marketing practice make it necessary to formulate innovative marketing paradigm as the paradigm will be consisting of salient elements:

- Concept, which is core of the paradigm

- Set of activities

- Domain

For instance, customer concept is the marketing concept a management orientation which maintains that firms establish relationships with selected individual target customers with whom superior customer values are designed, offered, redefined and realized in close cooperation with other partners in the marketing system such as suppliers and intermediaries, in order to realize long-term profits through customer satisfaction, partner and employee satisfaction. The marketing activities include decisions with regard to firm's stated vision, objective, strategy, business processes and human resource management. The marketing domain encompasses broader interpretation of marketing as central concept of organization in an imperative manner.  The need to explore effective relationship between marketing mix elements and creation of brand equity in perceived quality, brand loyalty and brand associations combined with brand awareness. There show that frequent price promotions, such as price deals, are related to low brand promo/equity, whereas high advertising spending, high price, good store image and high distribution intensity.

 

REFERENCES

 

Allenby, Greg M., and Peter E. Rossi. (1991). “Quality Perceptions and Asymmetric Switching Between Brands.” Marketing Science 10 (Summer), 185-204

 

Bettis, R., Prahalad, C., 1995. The dominant logic: retrospective and extension. Strategic Management Journal, 16, 5-14

 

Blattberg, Robert C., and Kenneth J. Wisniewski. (1989). “Price Induced Patterns of Competition.” Marketing Science 8 (Fall), 291-309. Davis, Scott, J. Jeffrey Inman

 

Burrell, G., 1996. Normal science, paradigms, metaphors, discourses and genealogies of analysis. In: S. Clegg, C. Hardy, W. Nord (eds.), Handbook of organization studies, 642-658 . London: Sage

 

Burt, S. (1994), ``Carrefour: internationalising innovation'', Case 13, in McGoldrick, P.J. (Ed.), Cases in Retail Management, Pitman, London, pp. 154-64

 

Cravens, D. Examining the impact of market-based strategy paradigms on marketing strategy. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 1466-4488, Volume 6, Issue 3, 1998, pp. 197 – 208

 

de Chernatony, L., Dall’Olmo Riley, F., 1998. Defining a “brand”: beyond the literature with experts’ interpretations. Journal of Marketing Management, 14, 417-443

 

Fernie, J. and Pierrel, F.R.A. (1996), ``Own branding in UK and French grocery markets'', Journal of Product & Brand Management, Vol. 5 No. 3, pp. 48-57

 

GleÂmet, F. and Mira, R. (1993), ``Solving the brand leader's dilemma'', The McKinsey Quarterly, Vol. 4, pp. 87-98

 

Kapferer, J-N., 1992. Strategic brand management. London: Kogan Page

 

Kohli, A.J. and Jaworski, B.J., “Market orientation: the construct, research propositions, and managerial implications”, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 54 No. 2, pp. 1-18

 

Kuhn, T., 1996. The structure of scientific revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press

 

Laaksonen, H. (1994), Own Brands in Food Retailing across Europe, Oxford Institute of Retail Management, Oxford

 

Low, G., Fullerton, R., 1994. Brands, brand management and the brand manager system: a critical historical evaluation. Journal of Marketing Research, 14, May, 173-190

 

Martensen, R. (1992), The Future Role of Brands in the European Grocery Market, The University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg

 

McDonald, M., Marketing – The Challenge of Change, Chartered Institute of Marketing, Maidenhead, 1994

 

McGoldrick, P.J. (Ed.) (1994), Cases in Retail Management, Pitman, London

 

McKenna, R., “Marketing is everything”, Harvard Business Review, January-February 1991

 

Pellegrini, L. (1994), Carrefour: development of the retailer brand, Case 21, in McGoldrick, P.J. (Ed.), Cases in Retail Management, Pitman, London, pp. 248-58

 

Piercy, N.F., Marketing Organization: An Analysis of Information Processing, Power and Politics, Unwin Hyman, London, 1985

 

Prahalad, C., Ramaswamy, V., 2000. Co-opting customer competence. Harvard Business Review, January-February, 79-87

 

Urde, M., 1999. Brand orientation: a mindset for building brands into strategic resources. Journal of Marketing Management, 15, 117-133

 

Wright, L., 1998. Avoiding services marketing myopia. In: W. Glynn and J. Barnes (eds.), Understanding Services Management, 33-55, Oak Tree Press.

 

 

 

 

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