Molecular Targets Of Best-Selling Drugs (short review)
Top Ten Best Selling Drugs
Lipitor (Atorvastatin Calcium) comes in a form of tablet. The Mechanism of Action of Lipitor as a synthetic lipid-lowering agent which helps to lower the cholesterol level (Aitken, 2000). The Pharmacodynamics is active on humans and the liver is the primary center of action and the principal site of cholesterol synthesis. And the Therapeutic Effects are constipation, excessive gas, headache, stomach pain, and physical weakness.
Nexium (Esomeprazole Sodium) that is usually used for injection. The Mechanism of Action decreases the production of acid in the stomach and promotes healing of the damaged esophagus that was basically caused by stomach acids. The Pharmacodynamics of Nexium is designed to block the acid production and reducing the gastric acidity which leads to inhibition of gastric acid secretion. It is ideally taken to prevent the ulcer caused by internal infections (Royne and Myers, 2008). The possible Therapeutic Effects: Constipation, diarrhea, dry mouth, excessive gas in stomach, nausea, pain, swelling, and stomach pain.
Plavix (Clopidogrel Bisulfate) is another kind of medicinal drug in a form of tablet. The Mechanism of Action metabolites the platelet functions with established cardiovascular disease as evidenced in stroke or ischemic attacks. The Pharmacodynamics is to keep the blood platelets slippery to slow down the blood clotting, and improve the blood circulation of the heart and brain until it reached the body (Wise, 2008).The Therapeutic Effects can be in form of some bruising, minor bleeding, and the worst can be in tightness over the chest, swelling of the mouth and unusual bleeding.
Flixotide (Fluticasone) is a product that made for seasonal allergic rhinitis which includes high fever. The Mechanism of Action is the reduction of inflammation within the lungs to lessen the symptoms and asthma attacks. The Pharmacodynamic of Flixotide plays an essential part in treating asthma that appeared mostly on children (Grundle, 1997). The available Therapeutic Effects are back pains, cough, headache, minor nosebleed, sore throat, and severe allergic reactions such as rashes and itching.
Seroquel (Quetiapine Fumarate) is in the form of tablets and it is not approved for the treatment of patients with Dementia-Related Psychosis. The Mechanism of Action of Seroquel as an antipsychotic agent that is active in brain receptors. The clinical antipsychotic properties and low side effects liability. The Pharmacodynamics centered on the main targets is the receptors of the brain and a candidate as a medication for patients that had psychotic problems (Schmetzer, 2002). The Therapeutic Effects are constipation, dizziness, drowsiness, dry mouth, lightheadedness, nasal congestion, sore throat, stomach pain or upset, tiredness, vomiting, weakness and weight gain.
Enbrel (Etanercept) is specifically concerns about the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) by blocking its interaction in the cell receptors. The Mechanism of Actions reduces the inflammation or joint pain associated with psoriasis and active arthritis. The Pharmacodynamics of Enbrel is used to relieve the symptoms and slow the progress of rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis with a right therapy (FDA, 1999). The Therapeutic Effects are dizziness, headache and muscle pain, redness of the skin probably because of bruising or swelling around the injection site.
Neulasta (Pegfilgrastim) that comes in a form of injection. The Mechanism of Action is to increase the peripheral blood and the amino acids works by stimulating the bone marrow to produce white blood cells to fight the infections (Werner, 2003). The Pharmacodynamics is centered on cancer patients are the main concern of medication. The Therapeutic Effects are bone or joint pain, constipation, and muscle pain.
Actos (Pioglitazone Hydrochloride) is another type of medicine that comes in tablet form. The Mechanism of Action as a kind of anti-diabetic agent that depends on the presence of the insulin as Actos improves the glycemic control while reducing the insulin levels. The Pharmacodynamics of Actos decreases the insulin resistance in periphery and in the liver results to increase in glucose output. The receptors modulate the transcription of the insulin number which involves in the glucose control and metabolism. The Therapeutic Effects can be as unusual tiredness or weakness, headache, muscle aches, sore throat, and weight gain (McRae, 2007).
Prevacid (Iansoprazole) in a form of capsule. The Mechanism of Action decreases the amount of acid produced in stomach to prevent the worse case of ulcer or damaging the esophagus because of stomach acid. The Pharmacodynamics of Prevacid continuous takes of the medicine can make a difference by increasing the basal output and stimulating the gastric acid secretion. It inhibited the secretion volume and acidity induced by insulin (Goff, 2002). The Therapeutic Effects are constipation, diarrhea, headache, nausea, pain, swelling, pain from the injection site, and stomach pain.
Abilify (Aripiprazole) which comes in tablets to threat agitation caused by bipolar disorders and considered as a type of antipsychotic medication that can gradually affects the brain (Keltner & Johnson, 2002). The Mechanism of Action is mediated or worked with some combination of other medicines that work in the same illness or disorders, and the activity is directed to the receptors that definitely can explain clinical effects. The Pharmacodynamics of the medicine affects the part of the brain receptors as it performs well when it is highly exhibited with proper amount and procedure. The Therapeutic Effects can be in a form of dizziness or drowsiness, headache, nausea, and vomiting that can be last for days.
Comparison and Contrast
For the liver, the Lipitor and Actos can help reduced different illness but the drugs have different actions and responsibilities to take care about. The Lipitor tried to lower the cholesterol while the Actos is for the insulin, which both affects the human liver.
The medicinal drugs can also handle the problems inside the esophagus and the stomach because of the Nexium and Prevacid which they try to settle the gastric acids. The circulation of the blood is the main concern of the Plavix because it slows down the blood clotting to improve the blood circulation. Another is the Neulasta that takes immediate reaction in the bone marrow of the cancer patients.
The Seroquel and Abilify both concentrates in the brain for they are antipsychotic agents. The little difference between them is the abuse use of depressants is enough to attempt the suicides that mostly appear on the teenagers.
For the bone and muscles, the Enbrel is the right drug that will take effect but somehow can cause muscle pains or swelling. And for the nasal congestion is the Flixotide.
Aitken, M., et al., 2000. A License to Cure. The McKinsey Quarterly, p. 80.
FDA, 1999. Infections, Deaths Prompt Arthritis Drug Label Change. FDA Consumer Magazine, Vol. 33, No. 4.
Goff, K., 2002. Medicine off the Shelf. The Washington Times , 20 Jan., p. 1.
Grundle, W., 1997. Things Asthma Patients Need to Know. The News Letter, 2 Dec., p. 6.
Keltner, N., & Johnson, V., 2002. Aripiprazole: A Third Generation of Antipsychotics Begins. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, Vol. 38, No. 4.
McRae, F., 2007. Diabetes Drugs 'Double Heart Risk', The Daily Mail. 27 July, p. 8.
Royne, M., & Myers, S., 2008. Recognizing Consumer Issues in DTC Pharmaceutical Advertising. Journal of Consumer Affairs, Vol. 42 No. 1.
Schmetzer, A., 2002. Primer for Prescription Medications: The Antipsychotic Medicines-Atypical. Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association, Vol. 5, No. 5.
Werner, T., 2003. A Round “PEG” for a Round Hole: Advocating for the Town of Oyster Bay's Public Access Channel Restrictions. Federal Communications Law Journal, Vol. 56, No. 1.
Wise, M. N., 2008. Thoughts on the Politicization of Science through Commercialization. Social Research, Vol. 73, No. 4.
Information, Interaction, and Side Effects. [Online] Available at: www.drugs.com [Accessed 06 October 2009].
Drug Information. [Online] Available at: www.mims.com. [Accessed 06 October 2009].
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