Cross-Cultural Pragmatic Between Dusun And Malay Communities In Brunei Darussalam
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Cross-Cultural Pragmatic between Dusun and Malay Communities in Brunei Darussalam
Based on this research, Brunei Darussalam is an Islamic country that has Islamic values and traditions. It is one of the smallest countries in the world. The country is led by the present monarch, Sultan Hajj Hassanal Bolkiah; and has an estimated population of 350,000 plus, which consists of 53 percent men and 47 percent women. And, Dusun is a small ethnic and linguistic group in Brunei Darussalam. They are also one of the seven Bumiputera groups in Brunei. Dusun communities speak Dusun language. The word “Dusun” is a Malay word which derived from “Orang Dusun” means “ men of the orchards” because their houses are surrounded with various fruit trees. Even before the British colonialism in Sabah, Dusun people have already existed in Brunei. This word was given to them by the Sultan of Brunei, for most parts of the west coast of Sabah were led by the Sultan of Brunei who also collects taxes from the "Orang Dusun" called "Duis" which was also referred to as the "River Tax". But these people are more preferred to be called simply as “Kadazan or Kadayan” also their dialect which means “the people of the land.” The Dusun communities trade in their agricultural and forest products for other food that they do not have. They called their trading activities as “mongimbadi.” Most of the Dusun people live in the hills and in upland valleys. They are peaceful, hospitable, hardworking, frugal, drinkers , and they are anti -violence people. At this time and age, several Dusun communities are already working in the government and private sectors as employees, maids, and some of them become business owners. There are also Dusun who studied their college education in the United States, England, Australia and New Zealand. This is the very reason that they have the skills and abilities to operate their own businesses, as well as to do highly-demanded office work. Dusuns are inclined to arts and music; they have traditional dances that are attractive, gentle and full of passion for life.
On the other hand, Malays are the indigenous communities of Malay, Kedayan, Tutong, Belait, Bisaya, Dusun and Murut, constitutes the major population group numbering at 223,500 (67.6%). Malay communities in Brunei Darussalam have still preserved the dress culture of wearing ‘Cara Melayu,' this is a traditional attire of men with a “Sinjang” or a woven cloth which wrapped around the waist of men during official and religious events. This way of dressing among Malay men is considered neat, polite and represents the Malay identity. All the same, not many people know about the excellent quality and originality of the design of ‘Kain Sinjang' especially those made from the traditional ‘Kain Songket' or cloth woven with gold threads. As a matter of fact, the Brunei government spent a large of money just to preserve the “Kain Songket” heritage in a cultural training center in the country. This is one way of honing the weavering skills of the Malays that eventually gives majority of the communities stable income and business for some who have enough capital. Cloth weavering is a very essential part of Brunei's customs and traditions that has transferred from one generation to another. The price of the traditional “Kain Songket” is appropriately a thousand dollars; and it all depends on the quality of cotton thread, design and weaving used. The official language of Brunei Darussalam is Bahasa Melayu, however, English language is also widely spoken in the field of business and commerce. country. http://www.aseancultureandinformation.org/coci/atn1.php?id=17
Malays make up around 67% of the 357,800 strong population that includes various indigenous group of people such as Kedaya, Tutong, Belait, Bisaya, Dusan and Murut tribes.
In Brunei Darussalam, there are some basic codes of conduct that both Dusun and Malay communities follow in their daily living. First, they are only allowed to use their right hand in offering or handling something to other person. Because left hand is considered unclean in their Islam belief. Second, pointing with a forefinger is considered rude, instead, they use right-hand thumb in pointing. Thirdly, Bruneians usually shake hands by just lightly touching the other person's hand. But for some Muslims, they do not shake hands at all. Fourthly, it is a must to accept any kind of food and drinks offered by other people. Fifth, touching people's head is a sign of being disrespectful, for this part of human body is considered sacred. Sixth, people are not also allowed to stand with their hands on their hips, it is considered rude. Showing affection in public places is also considered improper. And, removing shoes or slippers before entering a house is a sign of respect for the house owners.