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Sample Research Proposal on A Comparative Study of Teaching Methodologies Used by the Primary Teachers in Public and Private Schools



1.0 Title of the Study

The working title of this study is initially drafted as A Comparative Study of Teaching Methodologies Used by the Primary Teachers in Public and Private Schools.


2.0 Provision for Topic

Based on the working title provided, there are three topics that the study will explore teaching methodologies, primary level and public and private schools. There is always the comparison between public and private schools based on facilities, class size, budgets, administrative support and of course teaching methods employed, all contribute to the decision where the child should be educated. Primary education, on the other hand, is the first stage of compulsory education which aimed to basic literacy and numeracy.


3.0 Introduction

As already mentioned, primary education thrives for basic literacy and numeracy amongst all pupils. This level of education focuses on establishing foundations in science, geography, history and other social sciences. Typically, the pupils are placed in a class with one teacher who will be basically responsible for their education and welfare for a whole school year. Continuity with a single teacher and opportunity to build a close relationship are the most notable feature of the primary education system. Teaching primary level must be child active and child focused. It should develop both the manipulative and mental activities of the pupils. In addition, the primary subjects must concentrate on an aspect child experiences into which the child can display an interest (Murphy, 2003). With this, all the necessary elements of classroom learning must be properly incorporated from teaching methods, attitudes of the teacher, assessment of science learnings and etc.

Today, the academic world is witnessing the creation of new learning environments which require an interactive approach to teaching. Such processes make important both the roles of teachers and students but the weight is given for the teachers to integrate know-how in curriculum and instructions. There are two questions that relate to the study of teaching methodologies: the purpose of education and specific ways to achieve such purposes. Teaching methodologies should be developed with social principles and of starting what the students could learn more effectively as its foundation. Pedagogy is usually the ways by which a teacher can teach hence the teachers creates materials to be taught and enforces such. Strategies of instruction or styles of instruction the teachers conform to are diverse.

Amongst the most common methodologies why various sub-methods are based are: questioning, explaining, demonstrating and collaborating. Questioning is a teaching method that includes questioning is similar to testing. A teacher may ask a series of questions to collect information of what students have learned and what needs to be taught. Testing is another method of questioning. A teacher tests the student on what was previously taught in order to identify if a student has learned the material.

Explaining is a teaching method which is similar to lecturing. Lecturing is teaching, giving a speech, by giving a discourse on a specific subject that is open to the public, usually given in the classroom. This can also be associated with demonstrating and modeling. A teacher may use experimentation to demonstrate in a science class. A demonstration is the circumstance of proving conclusively, as by reasoning or showing evidence. Modeling is used as a visual aid to learning. Students can visualize an object or problem, then use reasoning and hypothesizing to determine an answer.

Demonstrations are done to provide an opportunity in learning new exploration and visual learning tasks from a different perspective. Demonstrations can be exercised in several ways. Here Teacher will be also a participant. He will do the work with his/her Student for their help. While collaborations are done through working in groups is another way a teacher can enforce a lesson plan. Collaborating allows students to talk among each other and listen to all view points of discussion or assignment. It helps students think in an unbiased way. When this lesson plan is carried out, the teacher may be trying to assess the lesson of working as a team, leadership skills, or presenting with roles.


4.0 Problem Statement

The problem focus of this study is the preferences of primary teachers in public and private schools of the teaching methodologies. In this way, the study could determine which teaching methodology is preferred by public school teachers and which method is preferred by private school teachers. With this said. The following research questions will be given answer to.

1)    Which among these teaching methodologies are preferred by primary teachers?

2)    Why primary teachers employ and make use of these teaching methodologies

3)    How do the primary teachers perceive the relevance of their teaching methodologies?

4)    How effective are the teaching methodologies employed?


5.0 Aims and Objectives

The main aim of this study is to compare the teaching methodologies employed in public and private schools in Pakistan particularly for the primary students. In lieu with this, the following research objectives will be addressed.

·         Identify the preferred teaching methodologies of public primary teachers and private primary teachers

·         Evaluate the effectiveness of the preferred teaching methodology

·         Determine the reasons why preferred teaching methodologies are being employed

6.0 Importance of the Study

            The study will be important because it will help people understand more about the teaching methodologies differences and specifically in security-challenged countries like Pakistan. By doing so, strategies and approaches can be developed by schools in tapping out the teaching competence of teachers working for public and private schools. Findings may be important in developing a new curriculum for teacher education.

            Knowing which teaching methodologies the teachers prefer will help the schools administrations in asserting the technical and professional needs of these teachers. Knowing why teachers make use of these methodologies in teaching their students could be also relevant in strategising their pedagogical approach. Finally, knowing the manner by which teachers interact with their students during lessons could determine the levels of competencies of the teachers. 

            This study can also be an important endeavour in pedagogical literature. Studying this unexplored issue in Pakistan context may help the academic system in the country and from there, develop and/or create strategies or suggestions on how to address specific weaknesses or strengths of the teaching methodologies employed. As I assume a role within the academic system after I have completed the course, it would be my responsibility to contribute to the educational literature particularly the literature that concerns teaching processes and practices inside the classroom.



7.0 Methodology

The study will explore the problem in a positivist view, using exploratory because it aims to know more about the phenomenon of teaching methodologies. Exploratory research will enable the study to look at the problem in both descriptive and exploratory manner. It will look into the problem by exploring the views of different sets of respondents, as well as by exploring different literatures related with the study. As such, it will determine the present facts as well as facts that are not yet explored about the phenomenon (Saunders et al, 2003).

This research is a study of a particular phenomenon (or phenomena) at a particular time. (Saunders et al, 2003) Accordingly, cross-sectional studies often employ the survey strategy, and they may be seeking to describe the incidence of a phenomenon or to compare factors in different settings.

The survey method, on the other hand, will be used for data collection. Surveys are conducted to gather data from the field in order to generalize results from a sample to a larger population. The primary purpose and advantage of surveys is to generalize the results. Usually, surveys are interesting in gathering data from many than in obtaining intensive, detailed information from a few individuals; therefore, it is seldom for a survey to consist of one or very few individuals.

            The study will survey 100 teachers from public and private schools in Pakistan. Teachers must be working in the schools for at least five years, licensed and at the primary level. This paper recognises the difficulty in conducting survey with the teachers because of the status of security in the country. Nonetheless, the study also recognises the challenge to collect information from them. The study will use a 25-item structured questionnaire.

            Secondary data will also be collated. Literatures will be sought on different education journals. Finally, all data will be evaluated using the latest SPSS software. The weighted mean and percentage of the responses will be calculated. The following statistical formulas will be used:

1.     Percentage – to determine the magnitude of the responses to the questionnaire.


% = -------- x 100        ;           n – number of responses

                                    N                                 N – total number of respondents


2.     Weighted Mean

                                    f1x1 + f2x2  + f3x3 + f4x4  + f5x5

x = ---------------------------------------------  ;


where:            f – weight given to each response

                                                x – number of responses

                                                xt – total number of responses













Murphy, C. 2003, Report 5: Literature Review in Primary Science and ICT, Queens University, Belfast: FutureLab Series.

Saunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. (2003). Research Methods for Business Students, 3rd Ed. London: Prentice Hall Financial Times.



































Time Frame
















Read Literature













Finalize Objectives













Draft Literature Review














Devise Research Approach













Review Secondary Data













Organize Survey













Develop Survey Questions













Conduct Survey













Analyze Secondary and Primary Data













Evaluate Data













Draft Findings Chapter













Complete remaining chapters













Submit to Tutor and Await Feedback













Revise Draft and Format for Submission













Print, Bind



























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